Monday, September 30, 2019
The Sierra Nevada mountain range stretches across the eastern side of the state of California. The range begins in the south at the Tehachapi Pass near Bakersfield and stretches north to Lake Almanor. The Sierra Nevada range is 400 miles long, north-to-south and has an average width of 70 miles wide. It was formed through subduction when the Pacific plate slid under the North American plate. The range is made up of deeply imbedded rock otherwise known as batholiths. The eastern slope of the mountains rose steeply which cause those slopes to be steep while the western sides are only gradually steep but not like the east 1. Thus the range provided as an early barrier to entrance into California and travelers had to go through the various passes to proceed, such as the famous Donner Pass. Although the Sierra Nevada mountain range, which in Spanish means the snowy range, is grandeur as a whole certain mountains and peaks throughout the range are more important. The biggest mountain of the whole would be Mount Whitney which happens to be the tallest mountain in all of the continental United States. Mount Whitney stands at a modest 14,505 feet. It is located right outside of the town of Lone Pine and is an obvious attraction because of its record holding. Therefore, many people are eager to reach the highest point in the US so a trail was built on the western slope to allow hikers to conquer the mountain. The main trail is the Mount Whitney trail and it is 21. 3 miles long and can be completed in a day 2. Other trails are also available but take longer and usually require overnight stays but do provide more views of the mountain. Mount Whitney is not the only mountain available to hike in the Sierra NevadaÃ¢â¬â¢s but is one of the most popular because of its sheer height. Another significant mountain in the range lies right up the US395 and is called Mammoth Mountain. Mammoth is actually an active volcano and was formed through a series of volcanic eruptions throughout the years. However, there are not any major eruptions anymore just minor ones. The mountain peaks at 11,059 feet but it contains a great ski resort that is actually the highest ski resort in California. Mammoth receives 400 plus inches of snow every year and is considered to be one of the best if not the best resort in California 3. Also, located near Mammoth Mountain is the National Monument called the DevilÃ¢â¬â¢s Postpile. It is a natural awe which is columnar basalt that is created by a lava flow that when slowly cooled and dried creates what looks like symmetrical posts. Before the site became a monument in 1911, declared by President Taft, it was almost blown up for the creation of a dam 4. Thankfully, the project was not completed or many sight seers would have not had the opportunity to see this amazing work of nature. Another spectacular sight in the Sierra Nevada range is the half dome at Yosemite National Park. The rock which is in the shape of a half dome rests above the Yosemite Valley and is a well known sight often used as a logo such as for the Sierra Club. Half Dome was formed by exfoliation where the rock cracks into sheets and then the missing face was carried away by the apparent glaciers that once filled the valley during the Pleistocene Ice Ages 5. However, geologists believe that there was never a full rock and that the current state of the rock is fairly close to what it looked like before the ice age. Nevertheless, Half Dome has dramatic views that hikers enjoy when climbing to the top. The park rangers are on site at the bottom of the rock from May to October when there are poles and wires attached to the rock to assist hikers in the 400 foot climb to the top of the rock. Basically, the SierraÃ¢â¬â¢s offer numerous attractions as well as awesome views that can accommodate anyone who enjoys being outdoors and appreciates the wonders of nature. Works Cited Ã¢â¬Å"Devils Postpile National Monument (U. S. National Park Service). Ã¢â¬ U. S. National Park Service Ã¢â¬â Experience Your America. http://www. nps. gov/depo/index. htm (accessed February 20, 2011). Ã¢â¬Å"Mammoth Mountain Ã¢â¬â Skiing and Riding. Ã¢â¬ Mammoth Mountain Ski Area Ã¢â¬â Skiing, Snowboarding, Rentals, Lodging and More. http://www. mammothmountain. om/MountainActivities/WinterActivities/SkiingRiding/ (accessed February 20, 2011). Ã¢â¬Å"Mount Whitney: Climbing Mt Whitney. Ã¢â¬ Mount Whitney: Climbing Mt Whitney. http://www. mount-whitney. com/climbing_mt_whitney. php (accessed February 20, 2011). Resendes, Mary. Ã¢â¬Å"Geology of the Sierra Nevadas. Ã¢â¬ Central Sierra Historical Society. http://www. sierrahistorical. org/archives/geology. html (accessed February 20, 2011). Ã¢â¬Å"Yosemite National Park, California. Ã¢â¬ Learning Online @ MJC Home Page. http://virtual. yosemite. cc. ca. us/ghayes/yosemphot. htm (accessed February 20, 2011).
Sunday, September 29, 2019
For my undertaking I wanted to concentrate on an country that involved some kind of pupil play/interaction. I teach Pre-K so most of what my pupils do is through geographic expedition utilizing haptic procedures. My pupils truly bask books and I can state when I Ã¢â¬Ëm reading that they are wholly engaged in what Ã¢â¬Ës to come. Through observation of my pupils I besides know that they enjoy moving out assorted things while they are at centres. Since some of my childs seem to hold problem with comprehension and retrieving cardinal information from the book I thought that conveying the book to life might be helpful for those fighting.Background/Class Information:I teach at SGA Elementary School in Sardis, GA which is located in Burke County. This school has grades Pre-K through 5th. There is 1 principal, 1 frailty principal, 1 instructional coordinator, 1 counsellor, 1 medical helper, 1 office director and 2 office forces. The school is comprised of 33 schoolrooms, including the r esources: art, physical instruction, and music. Grades Pre-K through 3rd all have a paraprofessional in each room and 4th and 5th portion a drifting paraprofessional between the grades/classes. This school is in a really rural portion of the county. Income degrees are really low and most parents suffer from high unemployment. If parents do work it is for a low paying/minimum pay occupation. Because of this factor all pupils are served a free breakfast and tiffin everyday at school. Pre-k besides receives a bite at the terminal of the twenty-four hours that is provided by our lunchroom. At this school there are 401 entire pupils. There are a sum of 186 females with the cultural dislocation including: 3 Hispanic, 4 multi-racial, 71 White, and 108 Black. For the males, there are a sum of 215 including: 4 Hispanic, 4 Multi-racial, 77 White, and 130 Black. Since we do hold several households in our school that are Latino the school recognizes that there is a linguistic communication barrier. We have a transcriber who can be used in order to assist do communicating easier for them every bit good as ourselves. Most households have household members who can assist and they will come to events in order to help them. In my schoolroom I have 1 Latino pupil. She began the twelvemonth talking broken English and has now progressed, but still gets hung up on a few thoughts. Her male parent speaks really small English with a strong speech pattern and her female parent speaks no English at all. When he needs to talk to me or I need to talk to him about his kid they prefer to utiliz e their girl to assist with interlingual rendition. The parents said that made them more comfy to utilize her so I have ne'er had to use the services of our transcriber, but the linguistic communication barrier truly has n't been excessively large of an issue. In my schoolroom I have 20 pupils. It consists of 11 misss and 9 male childs. For the misss I have 3 White, 7 Black, and 1 Hispanic. I have 6 White male childs and 3 Black male childs. In my schoolroom it is myself and a paraprofessional. She has been in a Pre-K schoolroom for 5 old ages. We reasonably much have an equal distribution as to what we do, how we do it, and how things get accomplished. I teach the bulk of the clip, but there are times in which she will learn calendar. She ever assists when we are in a big group puting and making an activity during that clip. We portion a joint function in carry oning little group. I have created groups based on degree. We decide what needs the pupils have and seek to come up with activities to assist them pattern so they can get down acquiring better at them. This is the country in which I can see the pupils profiting from the most because they are able to acquire our one-on-one attending and we, in bend, are able to truly concentrate on them and assist them where they struggle. Or if we see that they can make a undertaking with easiness we give them something to dispute them. Needs are tweaked harmonizing to the groups .Action Research Question:The focal point of my undertaking was based on the inquiry: if after reading narratives aloud to my pupils I give them different avenues to research the narratives during centre clip will this assist them develop a better apprehension for what is read? As I mentioned earlier, I knew this was the country I needed to concentrate on since some of my pupils had problem with comprehension. I do n't cognize really many childs who do n't bask playing either so integrating it with something active seemed best. Even while carry oning my research I did n't hold any countries of my inquiry that needed to be changed.Supporting Datas:Description:Students Ã¢â¬Ë chief exposure to books in a pre-k schoolroom is to nursery rimes and authoritative narratives. Nursery rhymes present the footing for a narrative: a character, an event and an stoping ( GSU, 2008 ) . Students besides gain understanding through the beat and repeat. With authoritative narratives, pupils are able to larn the difference between fact and phantasy every bit good as understanding the construction of a book ( GSU, 2008 ) . This manner, there is a clear beginning, center and terminal for the pupils. A instructor should learn one rime a hebdomad, highlight one a month, integrate a rime into a unit and promote kids to move out the narrative or rime by supplying chances at big group and/or centre clip ( GSU, 2008 ) . To advance narrative comprehension and enjoyment, pulling and treatment are widely practiced and accepted in simple schools, but a 3rd less frequently adept manner to follow up reading to kids is dramatic drama ( Galda, 1982 ) . Children connect books to play by actively seeking for book-related playthings and props in order to back up comprehension through set uping a more concrete appreciation on thoughts. Book-related make-believe drama represents a richer method of supervising pupils Ã¢â¬Ë apprehension of narratives, traveling beyond the typical inquiries and simpl e retellings ( Welsch, 2008 ) . A focal point on drama around familiar narratives and literature capitalizes on the plot lines that define pretend strategies ( Welsch, 2008 ) . Literacy related activities allow kids to polish their turning constructs of the maps of written linguistic communication and supply valuable, extremely meaningful pattern with emergent reading and authorship ( Christie, 1991 ) . Within an early childhood schoolroom, book-related make-believe drama could be considered an equal chance experience, in which every pupil can set on the chapeau, pick up the fork, travel in the house, and enter the universe of the narrative ( Welsch, 2008 ) . Recognizing that a kid acquires linguistic communication through active engagement and that literature provides rich linguistic communication theoretical accounts, storytelling and retellings is an first-class technique for furthering growing in linguistic communication and increasing comprehension ( Biegler, 1998 ) .Implementa tion Ideas:Ã¢â¬Å" Preschool and kindergarten schoolrooms, even those specifically designed as intercessions for kids at hazard of reading troubles, must be designed to back up cognitive, linguistic communication, and societal development, including exciting verbal interaction and enriching kids Ã¢â¬Ës vocabularies. Play affords kids chances to develop physical, societal, and cognitive abilities that will function them subsequently in non-play state of affairss Ã¢â¬ ( Christensen and Kelly, 2003 ) . There are a figure of things that can be done in a schoolroom to increase a pupil Ã¢â¬Ës comprehension. The chief manner is through dramatic drama. Using props and other stuffs makes the narratives come to life. Teachers can first supply a assortment of rereading experiences: spouse reading, Readers Theatre, echo reading, choral reading, shared reading, single reading ( Hicks, 2009-2010 ) . All of these things help with eloquence and increase comprehension. Play activities are the centre of immature pupils Ã¢â¬Ë zones of proximal development, where new cognition is gained through societal interactions with more competent participants and, while feigning, pupils translate their perceptual experiences of the existent universe into the actions that create and define the universe of drama ( Welsch, 2008 ) . On their ain and by their ain choosing, pupils may utilize this type of drama to research the most cardinal intent of literacy, the building of significance ( Welsch, 2008 ) . High-level drama is widely recognized as an instructional scheme that builds linguistic communication, vocabulary, and underlying cognitive accomplishments necessary for kids to go successful readers and authors ( Christensen and Kelly, 2003 ) . Children pattern verbal and narrative accomplishments that are of import to the development of reading comprehension and instructors can help the linguistic communication and literacy development through high-ranking drama in the undermentione d ways: 1. ) triping or developing kids Ã¢â¬Ës background cognition for the drama scene, 2. ) scaffolding the building of scenarios and retellings, 3. ) going involved in drama scenes to steer the kids Ã¢â¬Ës attending and larning through mold and interaction, 4. ) supplying the appropriate sum of unequivocal and narrative props, and 5. ) supplying clip and infinite for high-ranking drama ( Christensen and Kelly, 2003 ) . Research has demonstrated that use of the schoolroom drama environment through physical agreement of drama centres, inclusion of literacy-related stuffs ( pencils, paper, typewriter, etc. ) , and dramatic drama props can impact the quality and assortment of a kid Ã¢â¬Ës unwritten linguistic communication usage, battle in literacy behaviours, and narrative comprehension ( Monson and Nielsen, 1996 ) . Some narratives lend themselves to the usage of marionettes, felt-boards and still others can be developed as prop narratives which make storytelling semen alive, exciting the imaginativeness and affecting the hearer ( Biegler, 1998 ) .Research Findingss:Assorted surveies have been done as to whether or non these signifiers of active engagement work. Analysiss of cases where drama was related to the significances of the books the kids had read indicated that each case of book-related dramatic drama could be described in footings of six belongingss including ( a ) the range of drama, ( B ) the type of connexion constructed between books and drama books, ( degree Celsius ) kids Ã¢â¬Ës intents for drama, ( vitamin D ) the position or point of position explored, ( vitamin E ) the mark systems used and their relation to book reading events, and ( degree Fahrenheit ) the sorts of societal interaction involved ( Rowe, 1998 ) . Rowe ( 1998 ) besides noted that analyses demonstrated that the kids created direct linkages between their book and drama experiences. Children Ã¢â¬Ës book-to-play connexions involved: linking books to the universe of obj ects by turn uping and keeping book-related playthings and props, personal response to books through dramatic passages of feelings and actions, take parting in book-reading events through the character of a make-believe character, aesthetic reenactments of book events, screening out the writer Ã¢â¬Ës significances through drama, character surveies and utilizing book subjects and characters as springboards for personal enquiries about the universe ( Roskos and Christie, 2000 ) . Authors Pellegrini and Galda noted the importance of the equal interaction and the good facets of make-believe as lending to pupils Ã¢â¬Ë increased ability to understand the narrative ( Welsch, 2008 ) . The Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children clearly saw high-ranking drama as an instructional scheme that Fosters literacy development and future reading success in which kids reflect on state of affairss through dramatisation ( Christensen and Kelly, 2003 ) . In a survey don e by Deborah Rowe she suggested that there are a figure of features of the drama observed in her survey that may hold provided both motive and chance for the immature kids Ã¢â¬Ës literacy acquisition: connexion, ownership, flexibleness, openness, multiple mark systems, transmediation and community ( Rowe, 1998 ) . The consequences from Bieglers Ã¢â¬Ë survey was that kids exhibited greater comprehension and narrative memory by utilizing dramatic narrative reenactment than those who reconstructed narratives in instructor led direction and art activities and narrative related comprehension was most efficaciously facilitated by prosecuting in fantasy drama and retellings ( Biegler, 1998 ) . Jodi Welsch wrote an article in 2008 entitled, Playing within and beyond the narrative: encouraging book-related make-believe drama. In this article there are many good points covering with pupils playing and groking information. Welsch ( 2008 ) stated that kids connect books to play by actively seeking for book-related playthings and props in order to back up comprehension through set uping a more concrete appreciation on thoughts. Book-related make-believe drama represents a richer method of supervising pupils Ã¢â¬Ë apprehension of narratives, traveling beyond the typical inquiries and simple retellings because a focal point on drama around familiar narratives and literature capitalizes on the plot lines that define pretend strategies ( Welsch, 2008 ) . Two writers, Pellegrini and Galda are quoted in Welsch ( 2008 ) observing the importance of the equal interaction and the good facets of make-believe drama as lending to pupils Ã¢â¬Ë increased ability to understand the narrative . Play activities are the centre of immature pupils Ã¢â¬Ë zones of proximal development, where new cognition is gained through societal interactions with more competent participants and, while feigning, pupils translate their perceptual experiences of the existent universe into the actions that create and define the universe of drama ( Welsch, 2008 ) . On their ain and by their ain choosing, pupils may utilize this type of drama to research the most cardinal intent of literacy, the building of significance ( Welsch, 2008 ) .Plan and Timeline:Execution of this scheme took topographic point over a 10 twenty-four hours span in my schoolroom from February 1st through the 12th. I taught a unit on nursery rimes one hebdomad and faery tales/tall narratives during the other hebdomad. I eased my category into the alterations during our unit clip as we discussed the narratives. The manner it was introduced to my pupils and carried out is as follows: -Monday ( 2/1 ) : The unit for the hebdomad is Nursery Rhymes. I introduced what a baby's room rime was, elements that it contained, and talked about riming words. -Tuesday ( 2/2 ) : I read Ã¢â¬Å" Humpty Dumpty Ã¢â¬ to my category. We talked about all the words that sounded likewise in the verse form. They so did an activity where they drew what Humpty Dumpty might Ã¢â¬Ëve been if he had n't fallen off of the wall. I added this felt board narrative to our marionette centre in the loft. -Wednesday ( 2/3 ) : Today we talked about Ã¢â¬Å" Mary had a Small Lamb. Ã¢â¬ I foremost played the vocal and most of the childs recognized it and sang along. I so read it to them and added the book and music to the hearing centre. -Thursday ( 2/4 ) : I talked about the baby's room rime, Ã¢â¬Å" Jack be Agile. Ã¢â¬ I had a little taper holder with a taper in it and I had my childs take bends stating the rime and jumping over the candle stick. After the lesson was over I put the candle holder in our dramatic drama country. -Friday ( 2.5 ) : The concluding baby's room rime we covered was Ã¢â¬Å" 5 Small Ducks. Ã¢â¬ We discussed how this utilised math and numbering backwards/down. As we read the narrative I had 5 pupils keeping a duck and each clip one went off I had the pupil sit down. I besides played this on a Cadmium and the pupils took turns moving it out with the ducks. The Cadmium was added to the music centre. Five ducks were placed in music as props and the other ducks were placed in math as manipulatives. -Monday ( 2/8 ) : This started the hebdomad in which I introduced fairy narratives and tall narratives. I started out by giving different scenarios and the pupils had to assist me calculate out if it was the truth or a story. I so explained the elements of these types of narratives and had the pupils create one of their ain through a drawing. My paraprofessional and myself dictated their responses. -Tuesday ( 2/9 ) : I started by reading Cinderella. I wanted pupils to assist me foretell what would go on following since I figured this was a familiar narrative to them. I added a Cinderella costume and a suit coat to the dramatic drama country. -Wednesday ( 2/10 ) : Today I read Ã¢â¬Å" The Elvess and the Shoemaker. Ã¢â¬ After discoursing the book I had pupils pull what they would make to assist people if they were charming elves. My paraprofessional and myself dictated their responses. -Thursday ( 2/11 ) : Ã¢â¬Å" Small Red Riding Hood Ã¢â¬ was discussed today. I talked about aliens and asked pupils if they thought this could truly go on. The book and tape for this narrative was placed in the hearing centre. -Friday ( 2/12 ) : To stop the hebdomad I read Ã¢â¬Å" The 3 Small Pigs. Ã¢â¬ I had the pupils help me foretell what would go on to each house and each hog as we went through the book. I added gum elastic hog noses to the dramatic drama country every bit good as the felt board narrative to the marionette centre in the loft. -*All books from both hebdomads were kept out on my bookcase so pupils could utilize them during independent clip or if they chose the reading centre.Consequences:During this procedure I monitored pupils as I read and as they chose centres. While watching them as I read I looked to see if they were reacting to voices, certain parts of the book and if they were replying the inquiries I asked at different points throughout reading. This helped me cognize right off the chiropteran if they were groking or non. This besides helped me do note of who I could watch during centres to see if they utilized any of the points I placed around the room after reading the books. I was surprised because the bulk of those that seemed lost during me reading the book frequently selected reading or hearing and selected those books we had talked about. I could hear them reading out loud and utilizing the images in the book to assist steer them so they could state what was go oning. They would acquire excit ed when they would acknowledge that was something I had shared with them and it seemed to intend more to them than merely picking a book at random. It was amusing to watch pupils at the hearing centre excessively because they would hold their earphones on and be in the quiet zone, but all of a sudden you would hear them get down stating the narrative out loud. In the dramatic drama country all of the props and costumes were the first things anyone grabbed. There were a few who would set on the Cinderella costume and say that she was a princess and drama in it, but there were others who would have on it and truly acquire into moving out the narrative. I do n't hold many male childs that go to the dramatic drama country because aside from dress-up apparels it is largely used by the misss as the housekeeping country. There was one male child that struggles to grok narratives and he selected dramatic drama everyday after we read Cinderella and he would travel over at that place and set on the suit and feign to be Prince Charming. He did a great occupation at reciting assorted things that happened so he truly benefited from the excess support. The last country I added things in was our marionette centre in the loft. The pupils truly enjoyed the felt board narratives. I have had felt board stories up at that place all twelvemonth and I can merely remember two times in which they have been used. After reading the narratives and adding them to that centre everyone that went up at that place used the pieces to recite the narratives. It was incredible to me since it had seldom been used in the yesteryear that they would utilize it every bit much as they did and every bit efficaciously as they did. One thing that truly stood out to me was pupils who would choose the authorship and art centres. While in these centres about all of the pupils over the two hebdomad span brought me something they had created and told me it was a certain portion from one of the books we had di scussed. I thought that was neat because even though I had n't added anything new for them to utilize they still utilized the stuffs they had to demo their enjoyment and comprehension of the narratives.Artifacts:Throughout this procedure I did several things in order to roll up informations and do observations. As I mentioned in the subdivision above, I foremost watched the pupils as I read/introduced the book and made a mental note of who I was most funny to watch during halfway clip. Then during centre clip I circulated the room and listened to student treatments as they played. The bulk of them, at least for a part of the clip exhausted playing, related in some manner to the books we had discussed. If I saw pupils dressed up as a character, stating a felt board narrative or listening/reading one of the books we had talked about I would acquire my camera and snarl some images. I video recorded several pupils reciting nursery rhymes on the felt board every bit good as a group in dr amatic drama re-enacting the ball from Ã¢â¬Å" Cinderella. Ã¢â¬ Decision:I feel that this procedure was an utmost success and thoroughly replies a resonant yes to my research inquiry. I was really pleased at the overpowering response by my pupils to the props that were accessible to them. The chief intent of my end was to see if this helped more with comprehension and I can state that it truly did. I have several pupils who ca n't state me anything about a narrative after it is read and those are some of the 1s I focused on watching. They all, at some point or another, chose a centre and selected an activity within that centre entirely because they recognized it from our readings. All of them were able to state at least a portion of the narrative, if non all of a narrative, when utilizing the props. This is decidedly something that I will go on to make every bit much as possible in order to go on to assist those pupils who struggle to grok. For those that can grok good it will go on to function as added support for their content cognition.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Today, in countries which choose representative democracy as a form of state, ordinary citizens have the right to one man-one vote and thus they, in regular elections, vote for a political candidate or a political party which they want to be their own representative. This form of state is called Ã¢â¬Ërepresentative democracyÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëmodern constitutional representative governmentÃ¢â¬â¢ or political representation in general. Nowadays, the legitimacy and authority of the representative government is regarded as resulting from its being an expression of the will of the people. However, this expression as the source of the legitimate authorization for public acts is indirect: citizens transfer it to their representatives as intermediaries. The representatives as intermediaries are those who make the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s will present on its behalf. Thus, political representation has its theoretical scheme two political actors: the citizens or the people and the representative. This scheme of political representation which looks simple actually has many political implications for political actors and processes. My final paper is concerned with exploring what the modern terminology of political representation means and what implications it involves. As Hanna F. Pitkin, Allen P. Griffiths show, the conceptual analysis of the idea of representation, or the distinction between the several senses of representation, is very helpful for avoiding equivocations in the word Ã¢â¬ËrepresentationÃ¢â¬â¢. Griffiths posits four senses of representation. The first is descriptive representation, in which one person represents another by being sufficiently like him or her. The second is symbolic representation, in which persons can represent or embody traditions and spirits of things without having any particular personal qualities: so the flag represents the state, even though the flag itself does not connote the character of the state. Third, ascriptive representation, like the relation between the member of parliament and his or her constituents, means to represent in the sense that what the representative does or decides commits those he or she represents. Fourth, members of parliament may always concern themselves with the interests of their own electors against any other interests. This is representation of interests (Griffiths, pp. 188-190). The distinctions between these four senses of representation provide us with a starting point for understanding what representation means. There is a certain idea common to the various senses of the term representation: a reflection of something in the place of that thing. The common idea of representation applies within the political sphere in the sense that the basic scheme of political representation is the notion of one person standing in place of another for the performance of public acts. The eighteenth and the nineteenth century European thinkers, Edmund Burke and Jeremy Bentham, contributed to the establishment of the theorization of political representation as a dominant political practice. They, albeit with different emphases and arguments, were interested in how it is appropriate or possible for the people to pursue their interests in a society, and how representative government must work to be a government for the well-being of all people. To address these issues, they investigated who was to be the representative, who was to be the represented and how their relationship was to be established and maintained. I will start with BurkeÃ¢â¬â¢s view of politics or government, a starting point from which to approach his conception of political representation. According to Burke, politics or government is basically a matter of trust. The essence of this trust lies in the exercise of power being for the ultimate benefit of those over whom it is exercise, and hence in being in the end accountable to them. When the exercise of political power is contrary to this initial purpose, it loses its legitimacy: That all political power which is set over men, and that all privilege claimed or exercised in exclusion of them, being wholly artificial, and for so much a derogation from the natural equality of mankind at large, ought to be some way or other exercised ultimately for their benefitÃ¢â¬ ¦. If it is true with regard to every species of political dominionÃ¢â¬ ¦. then such rights, or privileges, or whatever you choose to call them, are all in the strictest sense a trust; and it is of the very essence of every trust to be rendered accountable; even totally to cease, when it substantially varies from the purposes for which it alone could have a lawful existence. (Burke, 1783) As viewed in this passage, for Burke all political power is exercised by someone to the exclusion of someone else. However, the exclusive exercise of power is not for the specific group which has the power but for the benefit of those who entrust that power to it. This act of trust is a result of the voluntary will of the people. According to Burke politics, and in particular the constitution of the state and the due distribution of its power, requires a deep knowledge of human nature, human necessities and various elements necessary for the operation of the mechanism of civil institutions. Politics is a matter of the most delicate and complicated skill, not to be taught a priori (Burke, p. 124). Due to this inherently professional character of politics, Burke thought that only people with reason and judgment had the capacity to engage in politics to control the state for the benefit for all people. He believed that this was the way to guarantee the true interests of people. To this end, in BurkeÃ¢â¬â¢s view the representative must be created to act on their behalf. BurkeÃ¢â¬â¢s representatives, who are distinguished from men in general above all by being equipped to participate in public functions, have two main tasks to perform for their constituents: one is to act on behalf of men in general because of the latterÃ¢â¬â¢s incapability, the other is to act on behalf of the public in order to defend the interests of both. Together with BurkeÃ¢â¬â¢s acceptance of the contrasting social roles of men and the public and their essentially conventional basis, this definition of the representativesÃ¢â¬â¢ task lays him open to the criticism that those definitions of the roles and the tasks in practice simply strengthen the predominant class in society (Bart, 1972: p. 360). From BurkeÃ¢â¬â¢s own point of view, however, the individual may all too often be foolish but the species is wise and acts rightly. Therefore, for Burke the species itself to which men and the public each belong both deserves and needs to be protected by the creation of the representatives. This is why he insists that a representative or parliament is necessary to act as a guardian of a privilege. To defend individual interests within a civil society, a representative must not only be committed to their defense, but also he must be able to judge accurately what their interests really are. For Burke, a member of parliament is not a simple delegate for the electors, but a representative authorized by his or her constituents to exercise his independent judgment to their behalf. Thus, for Burke the judgment of interests of the individual and society is made not by the electors, but by the representative who has knowledge, reason, moral insight and commitment which is not reducible to anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s particular interests. In analyzing political representation, even if Burke insists on the need for the creation of the representative by the reason of the ordinary manÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of knowledge and practical ability for politics, he does not deny that the whole people is supreme author of political power. In making representatives the members of a state must aim to secure their interests according to their portions in a society, which is, in BurkeÃ¢â¬â¢s view, simply a requirement of justice. At this point, Burke is concerned with the modern understanding of political representation: the scheme of political representation aims to strive for the public good. But Burke, unlike most other more recent major interpreters of political representation, is far from accepting the full equality of the represented when he sets out what is involved in the selection of the representative. BurkeÃ¢â¬â¢s conception of political representation is developed in different ways by various thinkers after him. I will now explore how J. Bentham addresses these issues. BenthamÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of political representation emanated directly from his general philosophical position. That is, just as BenthamÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy, politics and sociology are based on the greatest happiness principle, so we can trace his idea of political representation to be same fundamental source (Bentham, 1983: p. 2). For Bentham a society is the total assemblage of self-interested individuals, and the public interest in a society is nothing other than the sum of the interests of the individuals. BenthamÃ¢â¬â¢s distinctive view of society is, unlike BurkeÃ¢â¬â¢s, is founded on the assumption that an individual is the best judge concerning what his or her interest is (Bentham, p. 12). Therefore, when they pursue their interest respectively without relying on exterior criteria such as the judgments of the more capable men, societyÃ¢â¬â¢s general interest can and will be obtained. BenthamÃ¢â¬â¢s view, which interprets individuals as the best judge of their own interests, extends to the standing of the individual in the sphere of politics. According to Bentham, sovereignty in a state is exercised by the constitutive authority (Ibid, p. 25). The constitutive authority, to which all other authorities of the state are subordinate, resides in the whole body of electors. Thus, Bentham sees that when public decisions are the expression of the thoughts and feelings of the public, the general interest in a state is not separated from the particular interest of its individual citizens. The general interest cannot be established without direct reference to individual interest. In the process, Bentham notices the occasional conflicts between the general interest and the individual interest. With his belief in the people, Bentham maintains that the success or failure of representative government depends not on the people but on the representative, because while the people have the moral and political capability to sustain their polity, the representatives tend to have Ã¢â¬Ësinister interestsÃ¢â¬â¢ which are harmful to representative democracy (Bentham, p. 70). To the end of the successful working of the representative system, Bentham emphasizes the power and importance of public opinion as follows: Public opinion may be considered as a system of law, emanating from the body of the peopleÃ¢â¬ ¦. To the pernicious exercise of the power of government it is the only check; to the beneficial, an indispensable supplement. Able rulers lead it; prudent rulers lead or follow it; foolish rulers disregard it (Bentham, p. 36). For Bentham, public opinions are formed by aggregate of the opinions of the members of society, and are not a mere echo of government or professional politicians. Public opinion made in this way is not corruptible. BenthamÃ¢â¬â¢s trust in public opinion as the determinant factor in bringing matters to a conclusion is specifically shown in the proposal of the public opinion tribunal. Believing that the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s voice, not the capability of the representative, is the social force behind the successful operation of representative government, Bentham argues that the settlement of conflicts and disputes in a society can be done through continuous attention to what the people think and what they want. Bentham thinks that the problems and tensions in making the representative government work lie more with the rulers whose interests could not be always assumed to be identical with the interests of the people. Hence, he established many institutional devices to enable the representative to perform their roles properly in the interest of the whole people. For example, BenthamÃ¢â¬â¢s conception of secret suffrage as a method of voting aims to make it a safeguard against the abuse of power (Bentham, p. 186). In addition, such devices include the Ã¢â¬Ëtemporary non-relocability systemÃ¢â¬â¢ of the legislature, the Ã¢â¬Ëp.o. t. Ã¢â¬â¢ and the Ã¢â¬Ëlegislation penal judicatoryÃ¢â¬â¢ (Bentham, pp. 72-91). Through these devices, Bentham tried to make the representatives accountable to the represented. By doing so, he sought to ensure that the represented the people remained as the political actor qualified to decide the matters in a state even after setting up representatives. For him, the importance of the representative system does not only lie in it being a great security for good government, but also in its placing sovereign power in the hands of the people continuously. This is the central point of his case for political representation as machinery for good government for the greatest numbers of individuals in a state. Conclusion Believing that representative government would enable the people to pursue their public interests effectively and representative democracy would thus be a desirable form of state, Burke and Bentham tried to address the theoretical justifications or representative government and its practical problems in eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. BurkeÃ¢â¬â¢s conception of political representation was essentially based on a conception of a trusteeship. Although Burke mentions the prevalence of the people in the ultimate resolutions in major conflicts, his conception of a healthy viable practice of political representation commits him to a politics of trust on which the people is compelled to depend. BenthamÃ¢â¬â¢s validation of the idea of political representation is developed very differently from BurkeÃ¢â¬â¢s. By presuming every personÃ¢â¬â¢s entitlement to power in a state, Bentham maintains that the people have the knowledge and ability to judge public affairs for themselves. Nevertheless, the people employ a representative to act on its behalf as a matter of convenience. Bentham does not believe that the representative can run the government better than the people, because the representative does not process moral and political capabilities superior to the people. Accordingly, for Bentham, the representative is a delegate to express the public opinion, wishes and feeling, which is a way to promote the general interest in a state. I suggest that political representation must be understood not so much in the terms of a particular relationship based on the theoretical justification for viewing the people and the representative as the main political actors, but through a broader and more comprehensive conception of the political process. Today discussion of more fundamental elements in political representation seen as a scheme for public action is almost non-existent. The problem is not only that we have not posed the questions seriously, but also that we are quite unable to answer them convincingly. The theory of political representation is at present in a very feeble condition. Despite intense interest in practical issues of political representation, the term political representation itself has been poorly and inadequately understood. Without a fuller understanding of political representation than we at present have, the main emphasis of political representation narrows to technical issues of the rational pursuit and advancing of particular interests and of elections as a means of allotting of power. I do not deny that in contemporary politics we need to analyze how interests are distributed among groups if we are to grasp what is actually happening. But in order to assess how and how far representative government can reasonably be expected to produce good government, we must recognize that there is more to political representation than the instrumental and fundamental pursuit of material interests. Otherwise, as is demonstrated by the way in which our contemporary discussions about political representation have in practice been carried on, representative democracy works less as a substitute for popular self-rule than as a mechanism through which a given population of a society can in practice pursue their interests effectively. This means that we must learn to understand political representation not in narrow terms of the responsiveness of the particular relationship between two political actors, but more through a comprehensive conception of the political process as a whole. Bibliography Bentham, J. Ã¢â¬ËConstitutional CodeÃ¢â¬â¢ in The Collected Works of Jeremy Bentham, ed. F. Rosen and J. H. Burns (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983) Burke, E. Writings and Speeches, ed. L. G. Mitchell, Vol. 8 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997) Burke, E. The Works of the Right Honorable Edmund Burke, ed. W. King and F. Laurence (London: Rivington, 1826-7) Griffiths, A. P. (1960) Ã¢â¬Å"How Can One Person Represent Another? Ã¢â¬ Aristotelian Society, Supplementary.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Pagan Influence in the Culture of Ukraine Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 11
Pagan Influence in the Culture of Ukraine - Essay Example Ã Although this construct may come as something of a shock to many, the different methods whereby Ukraine and the influences that have acted upon as compared to the United States ultimately make for a very distinct culture (Schulman 1998). The first determinant of this is the level to which paganism plays into the fabric of society. True, the nation itself has been Ã¢â¬Å"ChristianÃ¢â¬ since the time of Prince Vladimir the Great (circa 988 AD), the long history of the people and the subsequent invasions from the East, including Mongols, Tatars, Khazars, and a litany of other peoples from the steppes of Central Asia meant that a great deal of diverse pagan beliefs were interjected into the culture of the nation as a function of the various tribes and kingdoms that spent time ruling over Ukraine (Holmes 2007). This level of paganism is exhibited in a litany of different ways within the culture; one of these being the celebration of the holiday Ã¢â¬Å"Ivana KupalaÃ¢â¬ which celebrates the life force of the rivers, lakes, and streams and continues to be celebrated throughout Ukraine and many other Eastern European countries (Culture and Arts 2009). Similar winter solstice activities have also engrained themselves into the culture as dances around the base of fir trees, harvest celebrations, days for the dead, and a litany of other pagan holidays and references pervade the culture in ways that would not necessarily be the case in the United States. There are of course a number of superstitions that continue to pervade the culture as well. An example of this includes the belief that whistling indoors means that the individual will soon have no money.Ã Ã
Thursday, September 26, 2019
A comparison of Dr. Martin Luther King Jrs Speeches - Term Paper Example This is where is inspiration derives from. The message of his more political writings, like the two items which are the focus of this paper, is less overtly Christian but the preacherly tone remains. It has been noted that Dr. King was a master of public speaking, and very conscious of the context in which he operated at all times. The unprecedented impact of the Ã¢â¬Å"I Have a Dream SpeechÃ¢â¬ was partly due to its location and timing right at the end of a peaceful protest march of some 250,000 people at the heart of American democracy in Washington. The context meant that the speech was the finishing touch to the Ã¢â¬Å"dynamic spectacleÃ¢â¬ 3 of the March, and the vision of this peaceful mass crowding around the Washington monument is the backdrop to this dramatic event. Martin Luther King was a leader, like many before him, who used large public gatherings and theatrical shows of strength to build consensus among his followers and to create an impression on those who were against him. He makes this explicit in his speech when he says Ã¢â¬Å"So we have come here today to dramatize a shameful condition.Ã¢â¬ His role in the rallies was as the public face of a mass movem ent, and the mouthpiece for generations of people whose protest had been crushed. The first feature of Dr. KingÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership is, therefore, his eloquence and rhetorical skill with which he mesmerized his followers and made a tremendous impact on listeners throughout America. The Ã¢â¬Å"I Have a DreamÃ¢â¬ speech is aspirational and emotional, and it shows the style that Dr. King wished to adopt as a leader. The Ã¢â¬Å"Letter from Birmingham JailÃ¢â¬ has some of the same styles, but it is much more concerned with the substance of his ideas and the detail of hisÃ tactics as the leader of a political movement.Ã
Global Environmental Change - Essay Example Serious threat from oil exploration on the eastern slopes of the Andes and the adjacent Amazonian lowlands of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia have led to a conflict between hydrocarbon hotspot and biodiversity hotspot. Loss of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services is one of the most challenging problems ecologist face. Advances in information technology, featuring computer simulation models built on digital databases and satellite imagery incorporating GPS and GIS can go a long way to identify problems, evaluate risks and design counter measures. Accurate maps are created using remote sensing technology that can play an important role to monitor the environmental effects of human activities on land and water resources. We are passing through the defining moments of human development challenges of the 21st century. Failure to respond will not only stall but also reverse international efforts to reduce poverty. The earth's ecosystems and the biosphere's life-supporting sy stems need to be understood for survival of mankind. The poorest countries are most vulnerable and will be the first to suffer from global environmental change, though they have contributed least to the problem. Large-scale global environmental hazards to human existence include climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, biodiversity loss, changes in hydrological systems and the supply of freshwater, land degradation and stresses on food-producing systems (WHO, 2008) 1. Their influence on the earth's ecosystems and the biosphere's life-supporting systems needs to be understood for survival of mankind. It also brings the complexity of the systems upon which we depend. Though there are many factors affecting global environmental changes, in this paper we shall discuss the impact of "desertification" and "dwindling biodiversity" on the earth. Desertification Approximately one-third of the earth's land surface is arid desert land with scanty rainfall, sparse vegetation and limited population (Walker, 1997) 2. Deserts are formed by a combination of factors that change over a period of time and will vary with locations. Unscientific land use practices leads to deterioration in vegetation, soil erosion and salinity directly affecting soil fertility and leads to soil compaction and crusting. Population pressure, socioeconomic factors, globalization, unbridled urbanization and merciless mining indirectly induce desertification. The inability to logically and technologically respond to such demands sets off a downward spiral of land degradation. It is very difficult to distinguish whether desertification was caused by reckless land management practices or from climatic turbulence. Due to its vastness, discussing desertification on a global scale require copious deliberations. This discussion is, therefore, being confined to China, which is big enough and favorably positioned in the northern mid latitudes for such a study. China also suffers from a very patchy distribution of water resources 3. China's Environmental Protection Agency has reported that Gobi Deserts expanded by 52,400 km2 during 1994-99 and is now within striking distance from Beijing. Scientists fear if this rate continues complete desertification will arrive within 15 years. Satellite pictures forewarns how two deserts in North central China are
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
The Domino Pizza Company - Essay Example In the same year of 1985, they also opened another store in Tokyo, Japan. They continued expanding their locations in 1995, they had succeeded opening 1000 international locations worldwide, and they can open up to five stores in a day across five continents (Saxena, 2009, p. 67). From 2007 and 2012, the domino company has established in India with at least 1000 locations Products and Services After a period of 44years being held as a private company, Domino began trading in the New York stock exchange under the ticket symbol of DPZ. It also added other locations such as those found in Huntley, Illinois, Panama. Its history was that of hitting a target of three million dollars per year. In September two thousand and six, domino had 8238 stores wild wide totaling to a gross income of 1.4 billion dollars. In the year 2007, the domino came up with a new program of Veterana Delivering the dream franchising, and rolled out its earlier one of online and ordering sites. In 2008, it launched an online Pizza tracker which allows customers to view their status in a simulated real time. There is also another dining room opened in Stephenville which gives customers an opportunity to either eat their pizza or take it home. In the year 2012, the company removed the word Pizza from its logo. It introduced a new logo which removed the blue triangle and the text under the domino in the l ogo; it changed the all-red domino to blue on the side with two dots and a red on the side with one dot. The Domino Pizza has a variety of menu which it offers to customers. Traditional, specialty ad custom pizzas are available in many styles and toppings. It has launched an artisan style pizza which offers a blend of rich flavors. Other additional entrees include pasta, bread bowls and the oven-baked sand-wiches; it also offers chicken side dishes, breadsticks as well as the beverages and desserts (Pradhan, 2009, p. 459). The menu expansion occurred in 1989 after discovering that customers prefer thick crusts. It entered the market trend in relation to bite size foods with spicy Buffalo Chicken Kickers which are similar to the chicken fingers. They are packed in a designed box with two sauces; heat up and the cool down chicken. In the year 2010, the company launched a national 2 year partnership with Make-A-wish foundation of America. Following the September 11 attacks, the 12000 p izzas were able to relief workers. They also partnered with hospitals such as the St. Jude research hospital, participating in the thanks giving campaign. Mode of operation of Domino Pizza Company In august 2003, Dominos announced a new pizza, the Philly cheese steak pizza. It began
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Effects of six selected antibiotics on plant growth and soil microbial and enzymatic activities - Research Paper Example However, different antibiotics have different effects on a plant, while different plants react differently to a certain antibiotic. What this study was trying to find out are the specific effects of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, tylosin, and trimthoprim on the soil and the plants that depend on it, especially when available data regarding it are scarce and inconsistent. This is important for farmers of agricultural crops such as rice who are using or considering the use of animal manure or treated urine for fertilizer and hydration, respectively. Briefly, different concentrations of analytical grade tetracyclines (chlortetracycline and tetracycline), tylosin, sulfonamides (sulfamethazole and sulfamethazine), and trimethoprim were tested for their phytotoxicity of sweet oat, rice and cucumber through observing their seed germination and plant growth. Tylosin and trimethoprim were included because they are used together with tetracyclines and sulfonamides, respectively. The seeds of sweet oat were the most susceptible to antibiotics, and sulfonamides and tetracyclines had greater effects on seed germination, as compared to tylosin and trimethoprim. In contrast, growth inhibition, especially of rice, was achieved only with sulfonamides. This is because sorption coefficients of sulfonamides are very low in soil as compared to that of tetracyclines, making the former more bioavailable and the latter less likely to be absorbed by the plant. As well, their impact on soil microbial activity was assessed through the observation of their effects on soil respiration and soil phosphatase activity. Soil respiration was greatly affected upon exposure to sulfamethazole, sulfamethazine and trimethoprim, with the first being the most potent and the last being the least, although the recovery of respiration 4 days after application was observed. This is because the dissipation half-life of sulfonamides is 2 to 5, making the antibiotic concentration
Monday, September 23, 2019
Read an article and respond to the prompt Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words
Read an article and respond to the prompt - Essay Example Additionally, individuals with low economic status worked for more hours as compared to individuals with a higher economic status. In 1965, individuals with a college education and a high level of income spent more hours relaxing as compared to individuals with only a high school education. This trend changed towards the end of the twentieth century. According to the Economist "By 2005, the college-educated had eight hours less of it a week than the high-school grads". This postulation is supported by a methodical investigation conducted by the American Time Use Survey that proved that individuals with atleast college education in the US spend an additional two hours daily in their work stations as compared to those with high school education. This change has been contributed by a number of reasons. Educated individuals have been earning more today as compared to what they earned three decades ago. Therefore, these individuals tend to lose more money when vacationing as compared to what they could lose in the twentieth century. In todays job market, income is dependent on input in terms of working hours. Through my observation of others, it is worth positing that the advancement of technology has led to significant changes in peoples experiences of leisure. Enjoying oneself today does not necessarily mean going for a vacation anymore. People prefer watching a movie at home with friends and family during weekends rather than vacationing far away from home. In my opinion, this explanation of the shift is valid. Well learned individuals tend to have a higher level of income. Subsequently, these individuals are also in management positions and hence they are given supervisory roles in organizations. This means that they must spend extra hours in the office going through all reports from every department as they are accountable for every activity within organizations. This translates to spending less time relaxing. Conditions in the
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Brief description of Elio Engineering Essay Elio Engineering is a company founded by Paul Elio and Hari Sankara for development and creation of late 1990s-era car seats. Paul? s seat was part of a special class of automotive seats in the industry called all-belts-to-seat (ABTS), and it was named NC seat (NC for No Compromise). Paul design seat called NC No Compromise since this seat would revolutionize the automotive industry making performance, weight and costs better than the competition. Presently due to its high cost, ABTS was used mostly in luxury and high end vehicles but with the design and idea of Paul, this technology becomes cheaper and can be implemented across all vehicle types for increased safety and comfort. A typical conventional front seat is priced around $500, lower cost compared with the ABTS seat that is like $750. One complete system costs an average of $2500. The seat mechanism, consisting of recliner and tracks, constitutes the technological core of the seat system. Ã¢â¬ ¢ An ABTS integrates the seat belt directly into the seat that is potentially safer because it Ã¢â¬Å"hugsÃ¢â¬ the occupant in the event of rear collision. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ease of use, higher comfort level, more attractive appearance and maneuverability of removable seats. In order to launch their product, and knowing that Bostrom was looking for and ABTS, Elio achieved an agreement with the firm, so they could use their site and their facilities (the computers and electronic equipment to warrant the quality of the seat, meet FMVSS and NHTSA standards) to develop the product, otherwise Elio wouldn? t have enough resources to produce and set up the seat. Bostrom planned to unveil the NC Seat at an annual trade show in March of 1999 in Louisville, Kentucky. The size of the US truck Market in that year was expected to be around the 500. 000 units, with the company commanding a market share of 50%, the European Market was about the same size, but Bostrom had no presence there. Elio expected to be able to get 2 to 5 % royalties on sales in the truck industry. However, Paul had concerns if Bostrom is the right partner in this venture where the ABTS seat has the potential to save millions of lives. Potential Market Size for Elio ABTS Seat Technology ElioÃ¢â¬â¢s ABTS seat system with its new technology, lighter weight, lesser components, higher safety and reduced costs has the potential to revolutionize the automotive industry and become the technology of choice for OEMs. The market potential in Northern America is 17 million units and up to 53 million units worldwide. As mentioned in the blue ocean strategy of six paths analysis, Elio can also look at alternate industries like heavy trucks, aircraft and passenger trains for its ABTS seat systems (Kim Mauborgne, 2006). Partnership with OEMs While the ultimate users of automotive technology are the customers who buy the cars, it is the OEMÃ¢â¬â¢s who make the decision on the seat system that needs to be selected for their vehicles. The OEMÃ¢â¬â¢s expect the seat system not only to fit the body of a particular car model but for it to become a part of the total interior design. The three biggest OEM players in the US market are GM, Ford and Diamler Chrysler with 29%, 25% and 16% of the market share. These OEMs use complex and sophisticated market segmentation technics based on demographics and lifestyles to design car interiors and seat systems. These OEMs wield enough power to dictate to the suppliers their requirements at very small operating margins of 2 to 5% (Burgelman, Christensen, Wheelwright, 2008). Also, it is particularly pertinent in engineering driven companies that assume developing new innovative products would generate fabulous success, which is not the case. The product might be successful, however the innovator might not. Considering the aforementioned points, it is important for Elio not to disclose their exact costs to OEMs and also do not rely totally on the innovation of their new ABTS seat system for continued success without a complimentary car interiors option (Kim Mauborgne, 2006). As a result, it is not recommended for Elio to directly approach the OEMs with their ABTS business proposition. Partnership with Competitors Elio Engineering began their initial collaboration with Bostrom Seating, a wholly owned subsidiary of Johnstown America Industries, Inc. (JAII) for prototyping and testing their design of ABTS for FMVSS and NHTSA standards adherence. While their results were successful and the partnership appeared lucrative, JAIIÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities in terms of OEM relationships, global presence, acquisition capability, existing alliances, JIT inventory, comfort engineering, CAD/CAM/CAE, benchmarking, research development, product development process, interior systems capabilities, total program management, vertical integration, purchasing, in-house design, system level testing and financial growth were either weak or non-existent (Burgelman, Christensen, Wheelwright, 2008). In this regards, for Elio Engineering, JAII can be seen as early adopters (Moore, 2002), but for Elio to move towards dramatic growth, they will need an early majority (Moore, 2002). In Northern America, Johnson Controls (JCI), Lear Corp. And Magna are the big tier-one players. They have about 60% of the market share. JCI is a global diversified technology and industrial leader in automotive seating, overhead systems and interior electronics (JohnsonControls, 2010). JCI has a strong to adequate positions in OEM relationships, global presence, acquisition capability, existing alliances, JIT inventory, comfort engineering, CAD/CAM/CAE, benchmarking, research development, product development process, interior systems capabilities, total program management, vertical integration, purchasing, in-house design, system level testing and financial growth. Lear Corp. is weaker than JCI in engineering and manufacturing abilities but compensated on systems integration and tier-two relationships. Magna did not excel in any particular area but it had adequate capabilities in most areas. Additionally, JCI and Lear Corp. have a strong global presence too with 27% and 25% respectively in Europe. All the three tier-one companies have the research development and manufacturing capabilities to transfer know-how to develop commercially viable products (Burgelman, Christensen, Wheelwright, 2008; White Bruton, 2007). For Elio Engineering, partnering with a tier-one operator is the practical option due to the following reasons : Ã¢â¬ ¢ Easy access to extensive manufacturing capabilities. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Access to global markets. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Access to sophisticated research and development facilities. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Strong relationships with OEMs. Ã¢â¬ ¢ JIT Inventory and efficient supply chain management. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Good tier-two relationships. For Elio Engineering, partnering with Lear Corp. would be the better than JCI for the following reasons : Ã¢â¬ ¢ JCI has strong RD set-up and they would have their in-house development for ABTS technology. Hence, Elio will have less bargaining power with JCI and possible conflict from JCIÃ¢â¬â¢s in-house team. However, Lear CorpÃ¢â¬â¢s R D is weak and they would opt for the ABTS technology from Elio to be able to better compete with JCI. This will enable Elio to have the better hand in negotiations. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lear Corp has the second largest market share in both Northern America and Europe after JCI. Lear Corp will be able to take advantage of ElioÃ¢â¬â¢s ABTS solution to increase their market share. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Earlier attempts to associate with JCI were not successful for Paul. The above points indicate that with Lear Corp, Elio will be able to engage in equal terms and be in a Ã¢â¬Å"win-winÃ¢â¬ situation more than with JCI. References Burgelman, R. , Christensen, C. Wheelwright, S. (2008).Strategic management of technology and innovation (5th ed. ). New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Johnstown Controls. (2010). Company and Businesses. Retrieved from http://www. johnsoncontrols. com/ Kim, W. C. Mauborgne, R. (2005). Blue ocean strategy: How to create uncontested market space and make the competition irrelevant. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Moore, G. (2002). Crossing the chasm (Rev. ed. ). New York: HarperCollins Publishers. White, M. , Bruton, G. (2007). The management of technology and innovation: A strategic approach. Mason, OH: Thompson South-Western.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Sri Lanka: Agriculture, Technology and Culture TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY Sri Lanka has had an innovative agricultural technology. Sri Lanka has had a rich agricultural technology. Because we can found new methods and new instrument for agricultural works now a days.Ã farmers can save time and they can doing their work instantly by using these method and instrument, however I think there Is complex agricultural system in Sri Lanka now a days because so meny artificial things are used for agriculture works. As example machines, chemichals ect. But modern agricultural methods are having adverse effect on envioronment and crops Agribusiness is the most imperative segment of the Sri Lankan economy. Despite the fact that its commitment to the total national output declined considerably amid the previous 3 decades (from 30 percent in 1970 to 21 percent in 2000), it is the most vital wellspring of work for most of the Sri Lankan workforce. Around 38 percent of the aggregate work compel was occupied with horticulture in 1999. In the subsistence part, rice is the principle harvest and cultivating rice is the most essential monetary action for most of the general population living in rustic ranges. Amid the most recent 5 decades the rice part developed quickly and yield dramatically multiplied, coming to the most elevated at any point yield of 2.9 million metric tons in 1999Increments in the region under development, and enhanced efficiency because of the modernization of farming are the fundamental explanations behind an expansion underway. The restoration of Sri Lankas broad antiquated water system arrange and g igantic new interest in development and support of water system framework prompted to a substantial increment in the zone under rice development. Between 1960-2000, the range used to develop rice expanded 6 times to 546,249 hectares. The modernization of cultivating techniques, for example, the utilization of high-yielding seeds, tractors, and synthetic manures additionally prompted to expanded profitability in the rice division. Between 1960-1999, rice yield per hectare multiplied from 1,877 kilograms to 3,672 kilograms. Notwithstanding rice, different other nourishment yields are created for neighborhood utilization. They incorporate yams, beats, grains, vegetables, and natural products. A large portion of these products are developed in family gardens, aside from potatoes and sugar. Sugar stick is developed in the dry zone, and Sri Lanka delivers just 15 percent of what it devours locally. The significant manor harvests of tea, elastic, and coconuts keep on figuring unmistakably in the economy of Sri Lanka; notwithstanding, the commitment of these business yields to GDP declined from 11.5 percent in 1970 to 5 percent in 2000. Tea, the unmistakable product of the manor division, develops in many parts of the wet zone, and specifically in the focal slope nation. Sri Lanka is renowned for its top notch dark tea, and is the biggest provider on the planet. In 1999, 269.3 million kilograms of tea (95 percent of aggregate tea generation) was sent out, procuring US$621 million in outside trade. The United Kingdom, Russia, and the Middle East are the real fare markets The second significant business product is elastic, developing in the edge and valley nation of the wet zone inside. Of 159,000 hectares under development, around 80 percent was being tapped (gathered) and in 1999, 96.6 million kilograms of elastic were delivered. A sizable extent of elastic creation is utilized as a part of the residential assembling segment (56 percent in 1999) and the rest of traded. In 1999 fare income added up to US$33 million. China is generally the significant purchaser of Sri Lankan elastic. The execution of this part has been liable to precariousness because of ominous developments in world costs. Rivalry from manufactured elastic makers has created elastic costs to drop. Be that as it may, with rising petroleum costs (the real element for engineered elastic) there is a possibility at world elastic costs to move forward. Antiquated Sri Lanka was an independent, flourishing horticultural economy the staple nourishment, rice, was developed in broad paddy fields, while vegetables, greens, grains and oats were developed in rain-encouraged grounds called Chenas. Chena is viewed as the most seasoned type of development in Sri Lanka, stretching out as far back as 5000 years in Sri Lankan history. Chena development was a customary practice and old Sri Lankans guaranteed that the earth was unharmed simultaneously. The methods used to develop a chena relied on upon a scope of factors including the atmosphere, way of soil and other ecological and topological elements of the territory. Chena development was fundamentally polished by men; be that as it may, ladies and youngsters additionally broadened their guide in different courses, for example, shielding crops from striking winged animals and creatures. Old, conventional ceylon agriculturists emphatically trusted in numerous religious and profound customs and practices. For example, agriculturists trusted that the individual who starts development of a Chena ought to be drained of contaminations, called Kili in the Sinhala dialect. It was additionally standard of Chena cultivators to petition their religious confidence before they start development. A solid proclivity to soothsaying likewise guaranteed that development initiated on a promising day and time Chena was developed all in all; every town had one chena plot which was partitioned into individual shares among the villagers. The insight behind this joint effort was a result of craving to secure the encompassing timberland. On the off chance that every villager was permitted to clear their own plot of land for development, the timberland would soon vanish. In this way the town would by and large select one range of land for development and share the yield. Navadali Hena is chena arrive made by clearing an untouched timberland territory, setting it ablaze and developing it instantly after. Navadali truly means new ash, which can be discovered plentifully all through the Navadali Hena. As the region has not been worked beforehand, a Navadali Hena is exceedingly fruitful and acquires a high return of yield. Be that as it may, ranchers avoid developing an excessive number of this kind of chena as it requires clearing new woods arrive therefore prompting to lessening in timberland cover. The woods starts to re-develop in the deserted Navadali Hena arrive following a couple of months. At the point when the trees have achieved the normal length of a grown-up people arm, the semi-wild is cleared and set ablaze for development. This sort of chena land is called Ath Danduwa Hena, Ath Dandu signifying a safe distance. A woodland which comprises of medium-sized trees is known as a Mukalana. Hence Mukalana Hena is a kind of chena developed by clearing the medium and little measured trees of a Mukalana woods. Once a land becomes infertile as a result of repeated tilling, it is abandoned by the farmers. This abandoned chena is still tilled by feeble, sick or old farmers who cannot extend their support to the collaborative chena cultivation as it is a strenuous activity. Hen Kanaththa does not produce an abundant crop, but it is sufficient for the survival of these farmers. Generally, antiquated chena cultivators cooperatively chose the kind of chena to be developed, regardless of whether it ought to be Navadali Hena, Mukalan Hena, or Ath Danduwa Hena. Once a choice is made, they would choose a proper land range; rough zones were regularly kept away from and zones with a spring were favored. Vee Bissa is one of the more prominent creations of antiquated agriculturists. It was utilized to store paddy for both utilization and for development. Contingent upon the sort and nature of paddy, diverse sorts of Vee Bissas were set up, for example, the Ma Vee Bissa, Vadimal Vee Bissa and Bala Vee Bissa. Among alternate sorts of paddy stockpiles, Piduru Bissa, Waruva, Veniya and Pesa were well known with the old and conventional agriculturists. The Vee Bissa was held with high see in antiquated society as it was an unmistakable sign of a mans riches and impact. The quantity of Vee Bissas claimed by a man was thought about in engagement propositions too. Numerous customs are taken after when setting up a Vee Bissa. It was set up at the passageway of the house far from the terrace and toilets, maintaining a strategic distance from spots with high moistness or consistent water leakage. A sufficiently bright and dry place is the perfect area for setting up a Vee Bissa. The materials expected to set up a Vee Bissa were gathered from their environment and the prompt wilderness. Each progression during the time spent setting up a Vee Bissa guaranteed the protection of the nature of paddy seeds. The Vee Bissa is bolstered by four sections made of stone or wood. The base is lifted a couple meters over the ground to evade any contact with soil and water that may influence the paddy. The body of the Vee Bissa is produced using an exceptional sort of earth got from ant colony dwelling places. Once these layers of dirt become scarce, dairy animals excrement is then covered along within the Vee Bissa to keep creepy crawlies from nourishing on the paddy. Red ant colony dwelling place earth was normally utilized because of its sticky nature and high porosity. This dirt goes away quicker when contrasted and other mud sorts and does not bring about breaks. The dry earth does not assimilate water promptly. The put away paddy gets ventilation through the minor pores show in the dirt and the oval shape encourages uniform ventilation all through the Vee Bissa. The Vee Bissa is secured with a Piyassa which shields the seeds by keeping water from going into it while likewise giving shade to the Vee Bissa. This keeps the paddy from being influenced by growths. A layer of Margosa forgets would be spread over the top layer of paddy once the Vee Bissa is topped off to shield it from unsafe creepy crawlies. Beside putting away paddy for utilization, agriculturists likewise put away them for development purposes. The germination force of paddy seeds are all around ensured in a Vee Bissa. At present, agriculturists are confronted with numerous issues concerning the capacity of paddy. These issues were never experienced by antiquated and customary ranchers as the Vee Bissa permitted them to store paddy for expanded periods without it getting spoilt. There is no hardware or innovation today that can coordinate to the Vee Bissa as far as having the capacity to save the germination force of paddy. Todays ranchers utilize capacity compartments made of concrete while putting away paddy, be that as it may it is far fetched on the off chance that they are equipped for ensuring the germination control as proficiently as a Vee Bissa. A Nagula is utilized to furrow the land before paddy is developed. Furrowing relaxes the dirt encouraging great ventilation and water supply to the dirt, while additionally devastating weeds and boosting microbial action. Old and conventional ranchers of Sri Lanka utilized distinctive sorts of Nagulas -, for example, the Sinhala Nagula, Yakada (Iron) Nagula, and Kakulan Nagula in light of the development of the land and example of development. Sri Lankan ranchers normally utilized Sinhala Nagula for furrowing. The handle of a Nagula is identify Nimun Kurulla or the Nagul Atha. The handle is settled to a grasp called Nimun Mita. The Vakkote is the piece of a Nagula that hollows the ground out. The Nagula is dragged along the ground by its stem, Pathakadaya which is attached to a wooden bar or burden (Viyagaha) by a harmony called an Amuthu Bana. The Viyagaha is put on the neck of bulls. The Amuthu Bana is usually made of deer or sambar deer skin, or from crude skin of a coconut shaft or skins of trees, for example, Lihiniya or Nava. An edge is made in the Viyagaha to grasp the Nagula. A stick called Kewita is utilized to drive the working bovines (bull, cow, wild oxen) while furrowing. Once the field is furrowed, the bovines are discharged from the Nagula quickly, and showered in the Boradiya Mankada of the Vewa (water system tank), and nourished diverse areas of a water system tank is utilized for various purposes, the Boradiya Mankada of a tank is utilized to bathe working creatures. Sri Lankan ranchers of old had extraordinary regard for the instruments and creatures they utilized as a part of their cultivating exercises. In this manner, once their working creatures are dealt with, they would wash and clean the Nagula also, and hang it on their Vee Bissa (a capacity structure used to store paddy). A Nagula is never continued the ground and a sloppy Nagula is never utilized for furrowing the next day. A Kumbura or Ketha is the arrive on which agriculturists develop paddy. Rice is the staple nourishment of Sri Lanka and in that capacity, paddy development is given most extreme significance in the agribusiness business. Antiquated and customary ranchers were independent in rice creation and old Ceylon is said to have been among the principal paddy exporters on the planet. Paddy generation in the nation prospered amid the rule of Sri Lankan lords, who cultivated and sustained creation in different ways including, most remarkably, the supply of water through the development of extensive scale water system tanks Ceylon was famously known as The Great Barn of the East amid the rule of King Parakramabahu who is eminent for his pressure driven development and redesign in help of agribusiness. Kurulupaluwa is one of numerous philanthropic techniques rehearsed by antiquated agriculturists. A great part of the farming practices of old worked concordantly with nature, instigating almost no (these were reversible) to no harm to the earth and untamed life. There are two sorts of Kumburu: Godakumburu and Madakumburu. Godakumburu are developed without a changeless water supply, rather paddy is developed here with the guide of rain water. These sorts of Kumburu were not well known among ranchers, because of the unconventionality of precipitation. Madakumburu were significantly more famous as these had a perpetual water supply by method for a water system tank or stream. See Sama is the way toward frightening and get ready land before paddy development, which is done utilizing a Nagula (furrow) and bulls. See Sama was performed ceremoniously amid the reign of rulers in a celebration called Vapmagula. Numerous religious ceremonies were likewise seen by conventional and antiquated agriculturists before nerve racking initiated. When frightening is finished, paddy seeds are sown or saplings are planted in the ground. No chemicals or poisons were utilized to improve the dirt of paddy fields. Antiquated and conventional agriculturists utilized compost, fallen leaves and rotted roughage to treat their property. These natural composts enhanced microbial movement in soil. The yield from this technique for treatment was high and missing of unsafe poisons. Poru Gama is the way toward leveling the paddy field with the utilization of bulls and an apparatus known as the Poruva. Poru Gama is by and large done fourteen days subsequent to nerve racking and treating paddy fields. This procedure guarantees that there is uniform water spill out of one Liyadda to another. Bovines (bulls, bullock, cows) who help the rancher in the many phases of paddy development are a significant resource for him. Along these lines, agriculturists treat their working creatures with most extreme love and care. They are never incited damage by the Kewita (a stick used to drive and direct the bovines) amid See Sama, Poru Gama and so on. The creatures are never over-worded and are given a lot of nourishment, water and rest in an opportune way. Toward the finish of a working day, the bovines would be washed and cleaned and given scavenge. The creatures are never utilized the whole day (they are just worked around 5 to 6 hours a day) and are never worked under a brutal sun (this was particularly amid the day and at twelve). A wooden fence called the Danduvata, made by stacking and tying fallen and trimmed tree stems and branches, is set up around the whole Kumburuyaya to keep wild creatures from assaulting crop. Moreover, a scarecrow (Pambaya) is raised and a Takeya (a harsh chime sort protest) is hung to drive off flying creatures and small creatures. Agriculturists would keep watch over their Kumbura for the duration of the day and night in unpleasant cut watch hovels called Pela to pursue away assaulting creatures. Sri Lanka has encountered many changes in the course of the most recent century which has significantly affected customary rice cultivating in the nation. An adjustment in the atmosphere can be viewed as the island has confronted a diminishment of precipitation and an expansion in air temperature in specific ranges of the nation. Moreover, arrive utilized for vegetation has been put to different uses bringing about lost 50 for every penny of timberland cover. The populace has additionally expanded by 15 million in a land region of 6.54 million hectares throughout the most recent 60 years. Event of cataclysmic events, for example, dry spells, surges, violent winds, avalanches, pestilences, and so on., has made life troublesome for individuals to run about with their exercises. Conventional reasonable horticulture moving towards present day innovation escalated mode is somewhat to be reprimanded for these catastrophic events. Customary agriculturists who assembled involvement and abilities over hundreds of years, figured out how to support yields under unfavorable cultivating conditions utilizing locally accessible assets. A review led by the creator with the support of Future in Our Hands, during2007 2010 in the Moneragala region, explored how customary rice cultivating and the related environment confronted the test of dry spell and developing issues of present day cultivating by following adapting methodologies from the past. Customary framework honed by ranchers incorporates: i) development of conventional rice assortments; ii) utilization of natural composts (straw, green excrement, cow waste, poultry fertilizer, fluid manure and so on.); iii) administration of filters out hand weeding, mechanical weeding, and water administration; iv) administration of bug and maladies by rehearsing Kem krama (ceremonies), keeping up bio-differing qualities, and utilizing bio-pesticides; and v) administration of accessible water without prompting to dampness push. A review was completed in 16 towns, where a few agriculturists honed customary cultivating and some others embrace present day cultivating. The fundamental contrasts found in present day cultivating contrasted with conventional cultivating were that the agriculturists utilized: i) new enhanced rice assortments; ii) Inorganic composts (urea, muriate of potash and triple super phosphate); iii) Weedicides; iv) Pesticides; and v) pre-booked water system. These two cultivating frameworks were surveyed by utilizing different markers, for example, profitability of land, work, capital, and seed, input cost and net return per unit weight of grains. Comes about demonstrated that the customary rice cultivating when embraced for a couple seasons could endure dry season conditions, diminish soil saltiness, and enhance soil P, K and natural matter and some physical properties. In addition, cost of generation diminished while work and capital profitability expanded. The framework enhanced its ability to control bugs with no extra measure. Discoveries are abridged in the table beneath. In lavish tropical Sri Lanka, paddy development took profound root, changing into the backbone of the islanders and setting the pace for a national culture decorated with expound ceremonies revolved around the readiness of the fields and the collecting of the grain. Sri Lankas unbelievable gathers once brought it notoriety as the Granary of the East. Chronicled records disclose to us that paddy was developed in Anuradhapura in 161 BC and thrived there until 1017 AD. Today, it is developed over the Island. As society developed, exercises and individuals near the heart of paddy development rose to unmistakable quality. By keeping the Island nourished, the goviyas or paddy ranchers rose the progressive system of the Sinhalese cast framework, raised by illustrious support in light of the fact that, all things considered, they satisfied the general populations craving as were meriting regard. Paddy development was a mutual joint effort including both the land-owning ranchers and the sharecroppers or ande goviyas, who worked exclusively and by and large, from the seeding toÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¨the reaping, under the direction of shrewd and climate beaten seniors. The development cycle was a high purpose of their social life. Everybody contributed. History specialist, Dr Ananda Coomaraswamy writes in Medieval Sinhalese Art, Extraordinary Chiefs were not afraid to grasp the furrow. The larger part of town society were carried into close touch with the dirt and with each other by cooperating in the fields; even the experts used to drop their apparatuses to do a share of the field work when need was, as at sowing or reap time Divine mediation was sort to secure favors for an abundant collect, and assurance from the components and from infection. At initially, it was the divine forces of the people religions of the land that the ranchers swung to. After the landing of Buddhism in Sri Lanka in 250 BCE, Buddhist customs took unmistakable quality and these society practices were consolidated under its umbrella. The customs varied from place to put. In the low nation, for instance, a function was held to secure the support of the Gara Yakka, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¨a evil presence accepted to bring about inconvenience in the event that he is not sought. In Anuradhapura, a function was held to thank the Aiyanayaka deiyo, a diety related with the supply, denoting the vital association between the agrarian individuals and their water. Old Sri Lanka had a great water powered biological community. Progressive rulers fabricated expound water frameworks to flood the land, gather water, and nourish the paddy fields, specking the scene with man made repositories. The cadence of the Islands paddy development cycles blended with the storm rains: the upper east rainstorm watered the Maha or significant yield cycle, which begins with seeding in October-November for havesting in February and March; and the southwest rainstorm watered the Yala or minor product cycle planted over April and May for reaping in August-September. 70% of the Islands rice gather originates from the previous, and the rest from the last mentioned. The ranchers honed two fundamental types of development: dry seed and wet-bed, the last being the more common. One strategy for dry seed development is known as kekulama, when the land to be developed was guaranteed from the backwoods, and alternate as vee hena if the land was under the moving or hena development technique, where the initial step is the earth being furrowed, left to settle for a couple days, and after that seeded with dry sprouted seeds. Just certain areas of land were dry seeded, and whatever is left of the land was set up for wetland development, to be done when the tanks were overflowing with water. Couple of occasions in Sri Lanka are attempted without counseling a celestial prophet who decides the favorable time for an effective result. Along these lines critical exercises like furrowing, seeding, sifting and reaping were started at propitious circumstances. One of the main demonstrations was for the ranchers to clear, clean and secure the conduits, pathways and regions. That finished, the gifts of the divine beings were secured with a pledge or guarantee, fixed by tying up a coin in a bit of new white fabric and joining it to the branch of a holy nuga tree close to the water source. The conduit entryway was opened, discharging water into the fields, the minute reported with the lighting of fireworks. At that point started the working and furrowing of the earth. Before, wild oxen were utilized to furrow the land, though today, tractors have set a considerable lot of these creatures out into the wild. The seedlings are then planted, with the primary seedling formally situated in the focal point of the field by the senior agriculturist. Areas of land at two closures of the field were left unsown ridiculous and creepy crawlies to appreciate. Watch cottages or pela are set up high over the ground to keep watch over the green abundance. The watchers had a Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¨clear perspective of the whole field. Flames are made to keep damaging creatures away. To remain wakeful, the watchers would sing pel kavi, melodies of the watch hovel. Gradually, the fields would turn a brilliant cocoa. Reap time was a period of cheering, to be commended in melody. The men cut the paddies and the ladies assembled them into bundles, which they conveyed upon their heads to the kamatha or sifting floor. In Folk Songs of Lanka, Carlton Samarajiwa states, the kamatha is a holy place in Sinhala society culture: it symbolizes the peak of an entire rural season furrowing the fields, sowing the seed, weeding and transplanting, and procuring the collect. The kamatha and the customs related with the action of sifting the paddy have over the eras gained their very own sacredness. Normally, there are kamath kavi, or sifting melodies, to be joyously su ng: Budun vandina velaavayi Kiri uthurana velaavayi Kola madavana velaavayi Kamatha pirena velaavayi The principal cuttings of rice are a festival. A stately pot of drain is set on a wood fire and permitted to bubble over, in a custom called kiri itirima that symbolizes plenitude. Drain rice is cooked with the grains of the main reap and offered to the Buddha and to the gods, and the rest of shared among those present. Bits of the primary rice are offered to the Buddha and taken in parade to the sanctuaries. It is a valuable minute that joins the land, and its abundance with the diligent work of its kin and their divine beings.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Herpes Herpes is one of the common of more than 30 different sexually transmitted diseases (STDÃ¢â¬â¢s) in America today. Herpes is an infection that is caused by one of two closely related viruses, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Both of which are very easily caught, have similar symptoms, and can occur on different parts of the body. Even though it is most common to see the virus HSV-1 appear as oral herpes and to see the virus HSV-2 appear as genital herpes. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Most often herpes is a relatively harmless disease that is rarely life threatening. The most common form of herpes is oral herpes and usually shows up on the lips or inside of the mouth as Ã¢â¬Å"cold soresÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"fever blistersÃ¢â¬ . Cold sores are common in young children who acquire them from being exposed to active cold sores of adults and other children. This form of herpes is annoying but harmless in both children and adult, but is however very harmful to a newborn. It can sometimes be difficult to distinguish whether or not someone has been exposed to the other form of herpes, genital herpes. This is because there are very often no symptoms that go along with the virus. This is not always the case though and when symptoms do occur they are often seen as a cluster of blister sores, usually on the vagina, vulva, cervix, penis, or anus. For genital herpes, symptoms may last several weeks, go away but only to return again weeks, months, or even year s later. Symptoms may a...
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Crohn's in College Students Avi Michael absentmindedly plays with his lip piercing, his thin frame draped casually over his bed. His wall is covered with posters of Bob Dylan and Modest Mouse; two guitars are propped up on a stand next to his closet, another lies on the vacant bed across from his. Ã¢â¬Å"I want to be a rock star,Ã¢â¬ said Michael, a 20-year-old history and film major at Northeastern University, and front man for the band, The Sex and Murder. However, touring with his band would be difficult, Michael says. He suffers from CrohnÃ¢â¬â¢s disease, a chronic and often debilitating ailment that causes inflammation in the digestive system, primarily the large and small intestines. Symptoms include rapid weight loss, abdominal pain or cramping, and rectal bleeding. Michael was diagnosed as a senior in high school at the age of 18. Ã¢â¬Å"I was really sick for a while. It got to the point where I would get sick and throw up after everything I ate,Ã¢â¬ he said. As a result, he lost a lot of weight; at 5Ã¢â¬â¢8Ã¢â¬ , Michael weighs only 128 pounds. The average weight for a male of his height is closer to 160 pounds. Over 200,000 Americans suffer from CrohnÃ¢â¬â¢s, according to Dr. Richard Curtis, chief of gastroenterology at Newton-Wellesley Hospital. Though the disease does not target a specific age group, certain risk factors do exist. People who have a genetic predisposition to it are more likely to develop CrohnÃ¢â¬â¢s, said Dr. Curtis. For example, people who have a close relative with CrohnÃ¢â¬â¢s have a 20 percent chance of being diagnosed with it themselves. CrohnÃ¢â¬â¢s is more common in Jews than in non-Jews; it is most common in Ashkenazic Jews than any other group. Ã¢â¬Å"CrohnÃ¢â¬â¢s is usually thought of as an old personÃ¢â¬â¢s disease,Ã¢â¬ said Michael. The harsh reality is that many CrohnÃ¢â¬â¢s sufferers are college-aged teens, many of whom were diagnosed as young children. Caitlin*, a 16-year-old sophomore at the Boston Latin School, was diagnosed at the age of 11. Trying to complete her schoolwork while maintaining her health is often difficult, Caitlin said. Ã¢â¬Å"When I feel good (almost all the time), CrohnÃ¢â¬â¢s doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t affect school at all,Ã¢â¬ she said in an e-mail. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s when I get so exhausted that I have to miss a day of school. I feel guilty missing school, and depending on the time of year, I get so much work the next day that I have to make up.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The Taming of the Shrew Essay: Katherina's Development Katherina's development in the play, The Taming of the Shrew, is a complicated dilemma for the reader to figure out. Is she really tamed by Petruchio? Or does she figure out his game and decide she's better off playing along? Or does she recognize her own excessive behavior in his and decide to change of her own free will? Or does she really fall in love with Petruchio and wish to please her lord? I think her evolution is a combination of all of the above. But do we, as readers, want her to be tamed or was her initial independence a virtue? It's obvious that Katherina's father, Baptista Minola, hasn't treated her as well as he treats Bianca, her younger sister. On the other hand, is her "shrewishness" a cause or a result of this favoritism? Katherina is obviously a highly intelligent woman whose gifts have no outlet in the domestic company of the household. For example, in their first meeting, Katherina keeps up with Petruchio pun for pun and insult for insult. Perhaps her fury is simply the result of having no outlet for her feisty wit. And when Petruchio comes along and treats her as an equal (the opposite of taming), I think she is taken aback and that is how he is able to swoop in and win her. In this first encounter, Katherina is, for the first time in her life, spoken kindly to by a man. She seems moved by Petruchio's praise. Also, when it appears she has been left at the altar, she weeps and wishes she had never met him. I think her grief is a sign of her genuine affection and perhaps even love for Petruchio. By the end of the play and in her final speech, Katherina may seem genuinely tamed, depending on your interpretation of the soliloquy -- is it genuine or tongue-in-cheek? Is she really her lord's noble servant or is she pandering to him and what he wants to hear? I think she wants to give her husband happiness, but knows that her husband will do the same for her. I think Petruchio and Katherina would actually have a very balanced marriage of mutual respect, because they each know what the other is capable of.