Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Obamacare , AKA the Affordable Care Act Research Paper - 1

Obamacare , AKA the Affordable Care Act - Research Paper Example However, this new health reform has been protested against by many as it may raise costs for pharmacies and businesses, a penalty will apply to those who do not buy coverage, and some low-wage workers would still find it unaffordable (ObamaCare Facts; Amadeo; Tozzi 2013). Basically, Obamacare has made it compulsory for all those Americans without a health insurance to get one. An important thing to note is that Obamacare does not replace Medicaid, Medicare or private insurance- it is a separate reform, although it has expanded Medicare. The law requires business companies to provide their employees with premiums, which will be less than 9.5 percent of the employees’ incomes. However, this only applies to businesses with less than fifty employees. The larger companies will receive tax credits in order to help its employees pay premiums. Obamacare also allows children to be put on their parents’ health insurance plans up to the age of twenty six. In addition, insurance companies are not allowed to deny insurance to individuals who are already suffering from a health problem. Those individuals who do not buy these premiums or health insurance will be subject to a new penalty of $95 or one percent of income, which will come in effect from 2 014-this penalty will keep increasing every year. Another part of Obamacare is the national menu labeling law, which requires restaurant chains with more than twenty branches to post calorie counts for each standard menu item (ObamaCare Facts; Amadeo; Shen 2013). Ever since President Obama introduced this health care reform, more than a hundred million Americans have already benefitted from it. According to statistics posted by the official White House site, about fifty million Americans are covered for preventive services, and approximately thirty three million Americans with Medicare use a free preventive service. This is because Obamacare has eliminated any additional cost, such as

Monday, October 28, 2019

The US Department of Housing and Urban Development Essay Example for Free

The US Department of Housing and Urban Development Essay The US Department of Housing and Urban Development maintains a website with a section dedicated to the Public Housing Environmental Conservation Clearinghouse. The website defines water conservation as a term that â€Å"refers to reducing use of fresh water, through technological or social methods. † In order to encourage water conservation, the site provides a spreadsheet that allows people to benchmark their water consumption. Based on the spreadsheet, a score of 0 means that water consumption is probably excessive, whereas a score of 100 probably means water is being effectively consumed. The spreadsheet was designed as a method for Public Housing Authorities to determine each project’s water consumption in order to encourage more efficient water consumption and reduce water related utility costs. The site also provides an area for related links to other sites that provide water conservation tips. Unfortunately, the only working link leads to the Natural Resources Conservation Service (sponsored by the US Department of Agriculture). This site describes ways in which people can conserve water use in their backyards. The other links appear to be outdated. There is also an area on the website entitled residents corner, which aims to provide research materials in order for residents and the general public to utilize and become more involved with environmental conservation. Unfortunately, only one of these links seems to work. The link leads the browser to a site sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency, which provides water conservation tips for residents. Finally, the website provides links that allow the browser to research and review more details about what Department of Housing and Urban Development and other federal government agencies are doing to further energy awareness. Although the site provides a useful spreadsheet that enables Public Housing Authorities to determine the effectiveness of water consumption in projects, the site does little to encourage browsers to conserve water. Most of the links are outdated, and there is barely any discussion as to the benefits of water conservation.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The La Jolla Project :: Architecture Architectural History Essays

The La Jolla Project The presence of the past is everywhere. One does not have to look very far to realize that the past has quite an influence on the present. In fact, there are a few examples of modern works of art at the University of California, San Diego, that bring to mind architectural works of the past. One such example is the La jolla Project, which is a collection of stone blocks on top of a hill on the Revelle College lawn south of Galbraith Hall. The isolated groups of blocks refer to architectural elements such as columns, posts, lintels, windows, and doors; but the collection, as a whole, resembles a modern reconstruction of Stonehenge. The La Jolla Project and Stonehenge differ from each other in many ways, but they also share some striking silmilarities that are constant reminders that the past is very much a part of modern life. The La Jolla Project is the third work in the Stuart Collection, which is a group of site-specific sculptural works at the University of California, San Diego. The La Jolla Project was installed by Richard Fleischner and was completed in 1984. The Project consists of 71 blocks of pink and gray granite (Stuart Collection 5). All the blocks are rectangular in shape and range from about 3 to 15 feet in length. The stones were quarried in New England and cut near Providence, Rhode Island, where the artist lives (Stuart Collection 6). Unlike the La Jolla Project, Stonehenge was probably not an abstract sculptural installation made of polished granite blocks. Stonehenge was built starting in 3100 B.C.E.(Encyclopedia Brittanica 287). The builders used mostly sarsen, a gray sandstone. Bluestones, or blocks of bluish dolerite, were also used. The number of stones used is unknown because the present structure of Stonehenge is the product of at least four major building phases. The stones have endured many centuries of rough weather and erosion. Stonehenge is located on Salisbury Plain in Southern England. Although it is not the largest henge (circle of stones) of the Neolithic Period, it is a remarkable site because it is one of the most complicated megalithic sites. Stonehenge was repeatedly reworked from 3100 to 1500 B.C.E. (Encyclopedia Brittanica 287). Each new major building phase added new elements to the site. The present-day arrangement at Stonehenge is the result of the last building phase which ended nearly 3,500 years ago.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

History of Table Tennis Essay

The sport got its start in England towards the end of the 19th century when, after dinner, some upper-middle class Victorians decided to turn their dining room tables into miniature versions of the traditional lawn tennis playing field. Several different every-day objects were employed in constructing the sport. They used a line of books as the net. Rackets were lids from empty cigar boxes, and a little later, parchment paper stretched around a frame. The ball would be either a ball of string, or perhaps more commonly, a champagne cork or rubber ball. Before â€Å"Table Tennis.† When the game first started it was called by a number of different names. â€Å"Whif whaf,† â€Å"gossamer,† and â€Å"flim flam† were commonly used to describe it. The words, as can be assumed, were derived from the sound that the ball made when hit back and forth on the table. In 1901 though, English manufacturer J. Jaques & Son Ltd registered one of the more popular names, Ping-Pong, as a copyright. He later sold the trademark to the Parker Brothers in the United States. Then in the 1920’s the name and the sport were revived in Europe as table tennis. Evolution The turn of the century brought many other refinements to the sport. Players started using celluloid balls after the English man James Gibb discovered them during a trip to the United States in 1901 and proved them to be perfect for Ping-Pong. In 1903, E.C Goode replaced parchment paper and cigar box lids with pimpled rubber on light wooden â€Å"blades† as rackets. And after the world championships in Prague in 1936, where two defensive players took over an hour to contest one point, the net was lowered to make the pace of the game-play faster. (In another effort to make the game more fast paced and entertaining, rules were again changed in 2001- see Rules). It Spreads Also around this time, the sport spread to other European countries and to the United States. Asian countries like China, Korea and Japan are understood to have learnt about it from British Army officers who held posts in those places. There was an unofficial world championship held in 1901, but the first official world championship was held in London in 1927 by the International Table Tennis Federation. The ITTF was founded in Berlin in 1926 by England, Sweden, Hungary, India, Denmark, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Wales. Asian Factor Although it may seem today that the sport, in the professional realm, is dominated by Asian countries like China and Korea, it wasn’t always that way. Before the late 1950’s and early 60’s, European players from Hungary especially, but also from France and Sweden seemed without competition. But in 1952, Japanese player Horoi Satoh introduced the foam rubber paddle. The paddle made the game faster and spinning the ball became an even greater factor. Japan became the main winner in the world competitions in 1960, and by the mid 1960’s China took over the reigns through to the early 1980’s. Their absolute domination of the sport was finally subdued with the entering of table tennis into the Olympic Games in 1988 and the participation of players from Korea and Sweden. Table Tennis and the Cold War On April 6th, 1971, the US table tennis team was invited on an all-expenses-paid trip to play in China. Four days later, nine players, four officials and two spouses crossed the bridge from Hong Kong to the Chinese mainland. They were the first group of Americans to be allowed into the country since the communist take-over in 1949. One of the first signs during the Cold war of improved relations between the United States and China, Time magazine called it â€Å"the pong heard throughout the world.† It was shortly followed with a visit to China by President Nixon. Facilities and Equipment The Table The playing surface, should be rectangular, 2.74m long and 1.525m wide, and shall lie in a horizontal plane 76cm above the floor .The playing surface should not include the vertical sides of the tabletop. The playing surface should yield a uniform bounce of about 23cm when a standard ball is dropped on to it from a height of 30cm. The playing surface shall be uniformly dark colored and matt, but with a white side line, 2cm wide, along each 2.74m edge and a white end line, 2cm wide, along each 1.525m edge. The playing surface shall be divided into 2 equal courts by a vertical net running parallel with the end lines, and shall be continuous over the whole area of each court. For doubles, each court shall be divided into 2 equal half-courts by a white center line, 3mm wide, running parallel with the side lines; the center line shall be regarded as part of each right half-court. The Net Assembly The net shall be suspended by a cord attached at each end to an upright post 15.25cm high, the outside limits of the post being 15.25cm outside the side line. The top of the net, along its whole length, shall be 15.25cm above the playing surface. The Ball The ball shall be spherical, with a diameter of 40mm.and weigh 2.7g. The ball shall be made of celluloid or similar plastics material and shall be white or orange, and matt. The Racket The racket may be of any size, shape or weight but the blade (wooden face) shall be flat and rigid. The covering material (rubber sheets) shall extend up to but not beyond the limits of the blade, except that the part nearest the handle and gripped by the fingers may be left uncovered or covered with any material. The surface of the covering material on a side of the blade, or of a side of the blade if it is left uncovered, shall be matt, bright red on one side and black on the other. Slight deviations from continuity of surface or uniformity of color due to accidental damage or wear may be allowed provided that they do not significantly change the characteristics of the surface. Rules of the game Serving The server shall project the ball near vertically upwards, without imparting spin, so that it rises at least 16cm and then falls without touching anything before being struck. The ball shall not be hidden from the receiver by any part of the body or clothing of the server or his doubles partner and as soon as the ball has been projected, the server’s free arm shall be removed from the space between the server’s body and the net. If the umpire is doubtful of the legality of a service he may, on the first occasion in a match, declare a let (see below) and warn the server. Any subsequent service of doubtful legality of that player or his doubles partner will result in a point to the receiver. Whenever there is a clear failure to comply with the requirements for a good service, no warning shall be given and the receiver shall score a point.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Kimpton Hotels’

Kimpton Hotels'  EarthCare program brings the business's philosophy of environmental responsibility straight to its properties, starting with its pioneering Eco Floor at the  Hotel Triton  in San Francisco in 1994. Today EarthCare's efforts include: * Using environmentally friendly cleaning supplies in all rooms. * Printing corporate collateral on  recycled paper  using  soy-based ink. * Usring recycled paper for all printing property-wide. * Serving organic, shade grown, and/or fair trade complimentary beverages in the lobby. * Allowing guests the opt out of towel and linen service. Recycling of glass,  bottles, paper, and cardboard through back of house operations. * Auditing and retrofitting back of house lighting to ensure  energy efficient bulbs  are in place. * Using low flow systmes for faucets, toilets, and showers. * Encouraging guests to  recycle  with in-room  recycling bins. * Stocking the honor bar with organic snacks and drinks. * Encouraging gue sts to donate unused amenity bottles to local charities. * Other practices, such as  recycling  coat hangers, eliminating styrofoam cups, using paperless checkin/out, purchasing organic flowers, and more. Kimpton properties are found in: * Scottsdale, AZ * Vancourver, BC Whistler, BC * Los Angeles, CA * San Diego, CA * San Francisco, CA * San Jose, CA * Aspen, CO * Denver, CO * Chicago, IL * Boston, MA * Cambridge, MA * New York City, NY * Portland, OR * Dallas, TX * Salt Lake City, UT * Alexandria, VA * Arlington, VA * Seattle, WA * Washington, DC * 1. Kimpton HotelsPresented by:GROUP 4Andrew Taylor, KirillCherepkov, Emily York, Alaina Alms,and Susan GrahamApril 23, 2009 * 2. Case QuestionsWhat further steps should Kimpton take to institutionalize its environmental commitments? ~AndyHow would you measure the success of the EarthCare Program, and how should it be reported to stakeholders? KirillWhat progress has Kimpton made in the four phases of its EarthCare Program sinc the c ase? ~EmilyWhat is the progress for each of the four phases? ~AlainaWhat is your overall assessment of their progress since the case? ~Susan * 3. How Would You Measure The Success Of The Earthcare Program? KirillCherepkov * 4. SustainabilityEnvironmental mgmt. (measuring success)Environmental audits (reporting) * 5. Environmental Mgmt. in PracticeMeasuring SuccessTop mgmt. w/ a commitment to sustainabilityLong-standing commitment†¦Phase 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 †¦Line mgmt. nvolvementLocal programsEmployee suggestions * 6. Environmental Mgmt. in Practice (cont. )Measuring SuccessCode of environmental conductâ€Å"Our Philosophy† Our philosophy on environmental responsibility is about more than contributing financially; it;apos;s about embracing behavioral change. This kind of change begins at home, is expanded at work, and now extends to who we choose to do business with†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"EarthCare program †¦ was the right thing to do. † à ¢â‚¬â€œ Tom LaTour, Chairman and CEOCross-functional teamsJeff Slye, Business Evolution ConsultantEco-champions, co-leads, and program specialists * 7.Environmental AuditsReportingSustainability report:PepsiCo http://www. pepsico. com/Purpose/Sustainability/Sustainability-Report/Environmental-Sustainability. aspxCAT http://www. cat. com/cda/layout? m=199421;x=7Wal-Mart http://walmartstores. com/Sustainability/7951. aspxFordhttp://www. ford. com/micr osites/sustainability-report-2007-08/defaultCost savings:$250,000 per year in waste disposal†¦New business: â€Å"†¦$500,000 in meetings†¦Ã¢â‚¬  * 8. What Progress Has Kimpton Made In The Four Phases Of Its Earthcare Program Since The Case? Emily York * 9.Phase #1 Designed to make hotel staff comfortable with the concept of greener management. Energy Conservation: lighting retrofitted and audited to ensure energy efficient bulbs are in place Recycling: bottles, cans, paper, ; cardboardCleaning Chemicals: tub ; shower, gl ass, deodorizers, and disinfectantsPromotion Materials: recycled paper and soy-based inkComplimentary Coffee in Lobby: organically grownHonor Bar: includes organic snacks and beveragesTowel/Linen reuse: sheets and towels are replaced only at guest’s request * 10.Phase #2 Focuses on investments in water and energy conservation and organically-grown products. Water Conservation: implementation and auditing of low flow systems for faucets, toilets, and showers Energy Conservation: install motion sensors in rooms, florescent bulbs in corridors and back-of-houseOrganic Coffees ; Teas: served in rooms, meeting rooms, and lobby * 11. Phase #3 Extensive investment in in-room recycling of products and sale of organic/recycled products.In-room Designer Recycling Bins: guests are encouraged to participate in reducing our environmental impact Recycled Papers: for copying, notepads, toilet paper, and tissuesDonation Programs: instead of being thrown away, unused amenity bottles are donate d and used by local charities Recycling: of employee dry-cleaned uniform bags and hangers*Guest can now shop the Kimpton Style catalog for eco-friendlyproducts like organic bedding and recycled glassware. * 12. Phase #4 Investment in building materials, labor, and appliances that are more eco-friendly.Energy Star: appliances, computers, and electronicsPaints: low-VOC paintsHeat/Air Conditioning: energy efficient * 13. NEW Phase #5 * 14. â€Å"Helping the environment because it’s the right thing to do. † – April 13, 2009http://www. changemakers. net/node/21543 * 15. Discuss The Specifics Of The Progress For Each Of The Four Phases. Alaina Alms * 16. OverviewWhat has been implementedProducts and Practices for each of the phasesGoalsAccomplishmentsAwards * 17. What has been implementedEarthCare Products and PracticesAs part of Kimpton EarthCare, every hotel adopts tandard environmentally friendly products and practices with high-impact and benefit to our planet. * 18. Products and Practices (Phase 1)Cleaning Supplies: All rooms cleaned with environmentally friendly cleaning products. Honor bar with organic food and beverage options: Honor bars include organic snacks and beverages. Soy Inks: All corporate collateral is printed on recycled paper using soy based ink. Towel/Linen Reuse: Guests have the opportunity to do their part to reduce energy and detergents required for daily washings.Recycling: Back of house recycling programs addressing glass, bottles, paper, cardboard, etc. * 19. Products and Practices (Phase 2)Organic Beverages: All complimentary lobby coffee is organic, shade grown and/or fair trade. Energy Conservation: Back of house lighting retrofitted and audited to ensure energy efficient bulbs are in place. Water Conservation: Implementation and auditing of low flow systems for faucets, toilets, and showers. * 20. Products and Practices (Phase 3)Recycled Paper: Property wide printing on recycled paper.Best Practices: At any hotel you may find environmental activities such as recycling of coat hangers, elimination of Styrofoam cups, paperless check-ins/outs, organic flowers, and more†¦ In-room designer recycling bins: Guests are encouraged to participate in reducing our environmental impact. Donation programs: Instead of being thrown away, unused amenity bottles are donated and used by local charities. Shop the Kimpton Style catalog: for eco-friendly products like organic bedding and recycled glassware. * 21.GoalsReduce waste in landfills by 15%Reduce energy and water usage by 15%Increase employee retention and morale by 10% * 22. Accomplishments;gt; 962,000 lbs of cardboard recycled~ 50,000 gallons of cleaning chemicals replaced with non-toxic alternatives;gt; 253 trees saved from using recycled paperAccomplished in one year in California alone * 23. AwardsCorporate Citizen of the Year. California EPA Awards. Kimpton has been honored with the 2007 California EPA Green Lodging designation. California Gov ernor;apos;s Award. National GeoTourism Award. ttp://www. kimptonhotels. com/programs/earthcare. aspx Kimpton Hotels’ 7 Eco-friendly Best Practices Put Your Commitment in Writing Kimpton Hotels have one of those â€Å"elevator pitch† mission statements to describe their environmental stance. It states: â€Å"Support a sustainable world by using non-intrusive, high quality, eco-friendly products and services at all Kimpton hotels. † It’s short, sweet, descriptive and can easily be said to someone in the few seconds it takes to travel between floors in an elevator. Give Your Eco Program a NameAnother way to add more credibility to you environmental efforts is to give your program a name. Kimpton calls their environmentally friendly green hotel practices, the â€Å"Earthcare† program. Like the mission statement, the name very succinctly states the corporate policy and carries with it the feeling that the company’s taking an organized, focused a pproach to preserving the environment and is already succeeding in its efforts. Provide Your Own Green Business Certification On its Earthcare page, Kimpton lists all of the things they do to be eco-friendly.These actions might not be enough to help them qualify for some green certifications, but anyone can see that they’re serious about their commitment to the environment. This strategy also makes it easier for the media to write about them. Today Show travel editor Peter Greenburg reproduced the Kimpton list of Earthcare Products and Practices verbatim when he mentioned Kimpton Hotels in his article on green lodging. Peter Greenburg’s Article: Eco-Friendly Travel: Hotels and the Green Bandwagon Put Your Results in Real Numbers That People Can UnderstandAdvertising copywriters are taught to write about benefits, not features. In this video on the Sundance Channel, not only can Mike Depatie, the CEO and President of Kimpton Hotels, outline the company’s philosop hy and detail all the changes the hotels have made, but he can also articulate the impact it’s having on the environment. Here are just a few of the benefits that are mentioned in the video: â€Å"Hotel Triton recycles 60% of waste. † â€Å"Their low flow toilets, shower heads and faucets save 15 – 30,000 gallons of water each year. â€Å"Their environmentally friendly cleaning products save 50,000 gallons of chemicals being dumped into the environment. † † Their recycling efforts and use of recycled paper products have saved over 253 trees and eliminated 18,000 pounds of waste. † Reward Your Customers for Their Conservation Efforts Kimpton Hotels offer discounts for guests arriving in a hybrid vehicle. The perks vary from saving 10% on the room rate at some properties, to saving as much as 50% off the overnight parking rate at others. Gather Multiple AwardsAs we stated in our article on obtaining a Green Business Certification for your small or medium-sized business, you should seek out â€Å"certification† from as many organizations as possible. Take one look at the Earthcare page, and you’ll see that Kimpton has done just that by gaining recognition, accreditation, and accolades from a variety of sources in government and in the lodging industry. Here’s a list of the various organizations that have recognized Kimpton Hotels for their eco-friendly hotel practices.Local and State Governments The city of Salt Lake City, Utah. San Francisco Green Business program State of California State of California EPA National Trade Associations Travel Industry and Association of America American Hotel & Lodging Association International Trade Associations Hotel Association of Canada State Trade Associations Massachusetts Lodging Association Media National Geographic Traveler Magazine USA Today Travel and Leisure Seattle Magazine MSNBC Sundance Channel, Ecobiz Keep It Fresh

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Peter Paul Rubens Prometheus Bound essays

Peter Paul Rubens Prometheus Bound essays The piece Prometheus Bound is based upon the mythological story of the Titan Prometheus who stole fire from the gods to give to mankind.(web 3) This work, which was completed in 1612, has a very interesting and diverse history. Flemish baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens was born June 28, 1577. By the age of 21 Rubens had become a master painter. At 21, Rubens traveled to Italy to continue his education. It was in Venice where he saw the radiant colors and majestic forms of Titian that influenced the style we see in his Prometheus work. (web1) Prometheus Bound was painted between 1611 and 1612. The more I look at this painting the more I like it but the stranger it becomes. The painting is of an almost naked man chained to a rock and fighting an eagle that is pecking out his liver. This piece symbolizes Baroque art at its purest. Most of the qualities associated with the Baroque are present in this painting. The painting is very dramatic in its portrayal of this struggle between Prometheus and the eagle. When I look at the eagles face I think it is grinning as if it were enjoying ripping out the liver of Prometheus. 2 Prometheus seems to be waiting for the right moment to strike. These characters are drawn diagonally to give the piece the dynamic quality that there is motion and a sense of falling off. You can feel the tension between these two characters when you look at their eyes and how they are fixed upon on another. Another interesting fact regarding this work of art is the addition of its left border. The original paintings left border ended at Prometheus knee. Rubens later added another 18 inches to the left side of the painting by sewing together the canvas. In the addition we can see a morning sky, the rock to which Prometheus is chained, and a lit torch with ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

10 Jobs That Don’t Require a Drug Test

10 Jobs That Don’t Require a Drug Test If you’re a stoner- or a medical user- or just someone who enjoys the occasional recreational puff, it’s good to know which jobs you can apply for without having to worry about a drug test. Rather than sweat the test in the hiring process, why not focus on a job that won’t bother? The good news is, there are plenty of jobs that don’t drug test typically. Here are a few favorites.1. ChefAs long as you can expertly and efficiently prepare excellent meals, no one cares what you do on your days off. It’s an expense most restaurants won’t prioritize. If you can’t cook, you could also try for a job as a restaurant manager and oversee things instead.2. BookkeeperBookkeepers and accountants might have to go through drug testing if they want to work for a company. But if you build your own bookkeeping or accounting business, you’re your own boss and on your own.3. IT/ProgrammerAgain, if you’re a self-employed consultant rather tha n a member of a corporate staff, you can avoid drug testing and still tinker with computers for cash.4. Event PlannerIf you’re super organized and great at throwing parties or planning weddings, then this self-contracting gig could be great for you.5. Graphic DesignerCreative professionals tend to get evaluated more on their talent rather than their squeaky clean drug-free record. If you have the skills, chances are you’ll never be asked to pee in a cup.6. Animator/Visual Effects/Video Game Designer2D and 3D designers, like video game designers, often work for studios that encourage a climate of openness and collaboration- and aren’t terribly keen on drug testing.7. Fashion/Interior designerWhether you design clothes or help people decorate their homes, you will probably work for yourself. Therefore, you set the rules. And you don’t bother with drug tests. You could even consider doing floral design and making beautiful flower arrangements from the comfor t of your own nursery.8. CosmetologistMake people pretty, employ yourself, and do whatever you like on your weekends. Be careful to avoid salons that are more corporate and would be more likely to test. You could also consider working as a makeup artist and hire yourself out for events and weddings.9. Dog TrainerBe the dog whisperer of your town. You’ll tend to be self-employed, so drug tests are not likely to be a problem.10. Personal TrainerHere again, you can be your own boss. And most gyms and fitness clubs don’t bother with drug tests, anyway. It’s a great career to make sure you keep yourself fit and help others to do so as well.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

You Too Can Sponsor A Word!

You Too Can Sponsor A Word! You Too Can Sponsor A Word! You Too Can Sponsor A Word! By Maeve Maddox Of all the free language references available online, my absolute favorite is the Online Etymology Dictionary: a map of the wheel-ruts of modern Englishexplanations of what our words meant and how they sounded 600 or 2,000 years ago. My usual practice in researching a post is to consult several referencesonline and in print. When my topic is a single word or expression, I usually begin with the Online Etymology Dictionary. Hmm, I just tried to abbreviate the title, but realized that I cant use its initials because they are the same as another, better-known reference. In all the time Ive been using the OEtyD, this is the first time Id given any thought to how its creators are able to provide this wonderful site for free. The other day my eye fell on a link Id never noticed before: Sponsor a word, and help keep the Online Etymology Dictionary free and open. The link led me to the plea for donations, but unlike most such pleas, this one is hard to resist. For a mere $10, donors can sponsor a word of their choice for six months. Think of it! If no one else has already claimed it, you can sponsor a beautiful word like hyperventilation or minuscule. You can dedicate a word to your girl friend or boy friend. You can even submit a photo to go with your word and a personalized message explaining why you chose it. I couldnt resist. After all, I do use this reference a lot. And I enjoy it. In fact, sometimes I enjoy it so much I spend more time researching than is absolutely necessary. Ive signed up to sponsor the word standard. Check it out. If nothing else, youll enjoy browsing the Sponsors page and reading the various reasons for their word choices. Online Etymology Dictionary Home Page Sponsors and their words Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:20 Great Opening Lines to Inspire the Start of Your StoryUse a Dash for Number RangesNarrative, Plot, and Story

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Hitch Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Hitch - Essay Example During the time when Hitchens tries to help out Albert he also falls for Sara who was a gossip columnist. Thus the movie moves forwards with the interplay of the four characters in different situations. (Tenant, 2005). As the movie moves forward it is able to capture the attention of the audience because it is a movie to which most of the audience is able to relate easily. The goal of the paper is to explore how closely sociological issues are related to the movie Hitch. The main issues which have been addressed through the movie are primarily social interaction, race and gender. This is because we see in the movie Sara the gossip columnist had a strong dislike for men and she believed that men are worthless. From the feminist perspective it can be said that Sara wanted to protest against all men of the society by showing complete disregard and disgust for them. Moreover we also see in the movie that she thinks Alex Hitchens as a man who teaches other men to use women according to their fancy. This is because one of the clients of Alex had a one night stand with Sara’s best friend. Taking cue from this we can say that the movie Hitch also tries to focus on the objectification of women from the perspective of Sara. Through Sara the message which we get is that objectification of women by men was a very common phenomenon and women were aware of such a system existing and here in the movie Sara’s desire to unmask Hitchens is basically a p rotest which women want to undertake against men. Therefore Sara is determined to unmask Alex in front of the world. Devereux in the book, â€Å"Media Studies: Key Issues and Debates† says that the casting of the movie â€Å"Hitch† has remained an example of the inadequate representation of the minority groups like the Blacks in the mass media. Alex played by William Smith is an example of African representation in the media and the presence of stars like him point to the fact that though Blacks have received

Friday, October 18, 2019

Film 152G Contemporary american cinema Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Film 152G Contemporary american cinema - Essay Example Scott had chosen that camera position to feature Ms Weaver's derriere because, after all, Ripley had been throughout much of the movie its protagonist and most resourceful character - assuming in the story a role usually portrayed by a man - and the director's (or editor's) selection of this 'take' was intended to reveal a softer, more feminine aspect of her. If that were so, however, it's valid to ask why and how showing the 'crack in that ass' above the panty-line would feminize Ripley. with the advent of Sexual Liberation, women's roles in films became more complex and less 'sexist' than in the Hollywood movies of the 1930s and 40s. What has happened, in fact, is much the opposite. In films such as Taxi Driver, Pulp Fiction and Sex, Lies and Videotape, contemporary Hollywood depicts women in ways more stereotypic, less independent and unique, than it did in that so-called Classic era of American movies. Released by Paramount in 1941, Sullivan's Travels defies neat categorization. With its mixture of drama, sentiment and comedy, it could be considered 'black humor,' a trademark of its writer/director, Preston Sturges. One of the film's more remarkable aspects is its depiction of 'The Girl' played by Veronica Lake. Though she is given no name, The Girl is attractive and sexual, but she is more than the sum of those attributes. While Lake's trademark blond tresses frame her face alluringly, she is never an object of stereotypic sexuality. Her character has validity in the sense that she is herself; though an out of work actress, she does not play the sex card with the well-known director, Sullivan. To the contrary, throughout the story she contradicts and bullies him while also sharing his 'travels' as an equal. When they first meet in the diner and Sullivan has no money on him, The Girl, though out of work and her apartment, offers to buy him breakfast. Sullivan refuses and Lake says, "Don't be a sucker. (to the counterman) Give him some ham and eggs." After she and the director jump from a moving train and she lands on top of him, The Girl asks, "Did I hurt ya any" But it is more taunt than clichd, submissive concern (Sullivan's response is worth quoting: "Well, you didn't do me any good.").Sullivan may be a successful director but it is The Girl who is more tenacious of life and the stronger character. She dominates their scenes together the way Rosalind Russell as Hildy Parks did Cary Grant in His Girl Friday, or as Kate Hepburn and Bette Davis dominated - or were equal to - their co-stars in just about any film they made. Even Mae West (sex incarnate) portrayed gutsy, self-secure and unique women; indeed, she gloried in her over-ripe sexuality with relentless and less-than-subtle double entendres. It is well-known that Olivia deHavilland groused about her insipid roles opposite Errol Flynn for Warner Bros., but she proved a

MGMT444 U1 IP Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

MGMT444 U1 IP - Research Paper Example Organization is one of the key attributes that every business manager is expected to have. This characteristic ensures that desired business performance is achieved on periodic basis and new opportunities that arise during the course are not only identified but also utilized. Therefore, manager is expected to remain well aware at all times or at least have a mechanism or system in place to do so on systematic basis. 3) A major part of your job would involve managing people. It is important for us that our business managers are perceived as just and approachable. Have you come across such situations where maintaining objectivity would have been difficult in interpersonal situations? A business manager is required to be well respected by their subordinates. For this purpose, being just and fair is important. It is also important in order to motivate employees and have effective communication with them through different media (Hunter, 2009). 4) What do you think is the key of motivating one’s team? What attributes should managers have in this regard? Have you introduced any measures in your previous organizations to enhance employees’ morale and motivation level? A business manager is required to be aware of existing market practices used to motivate employees intrinsically as well as extrinsically (Hunter, 2009; Collins, 2001). Also, they should be creative enough to analyze needs of their subordinates and introduce new regime of policies to motivate them. 5) We believe that our managers represent our culture and values, as they are responsible for coaching and mentoring our workforce. Please tell us how you see yourself compatible with our values and principles. Coaching and mentoring is an important aspect of leading workforce. This function not only involves training employees regarding their function but also guide them about career progression and personal circumstances faced by them. It is

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Augustine's View on the Death Penalty Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Augustine's View on the Death Penalty - Essay Example "He needed and wanted God, convinced that he could never achieve happiness in God-fewer worlds. But at the same time, he could not deny the sometimes overpowering presence of evil in himself and the world," Burt (1996, p.13). Augustine argued that all beings came from one God and such a God cannot be the cause of evil. But he acknowledges that there is Evil in the world and law can only control it, but cannot completely eliminate it. It is not easy to point out at a single cause of evil and the person who creates evil is responsible for that part of evil that is his creation. The Justice of God will punish the evil-doer. Asked closely by Evodius, Augustine says that if we believe in the laws, we should try to understand whether the laws punish a murderer justly or unjustly. When it comes to killing, Augustine favours the killing in self-defence and feels that it is not exactly a murder. Also he says that some murders like a soldier killing an enemy cannot be classified as murders, because the soldier here is merely an agent of the law, because he did not kill to satisfy his own desires. At the same time, law, which orders him to kill, does not have any desires of its own. He did not stand by a strict understanding of moral autonomy which, he thought could be an error consisting of impossibility. "Where human beings are concerned, there is no such thing as being free from a law that is imposed from without; to deny the authority of the eternal law is not moral adulthood but moral perversity. Moral uprightness therefore consists in submission to this eternal and immutable truth, which is not of our own making," says Williams in Introduction (xvii) of On Free Choice of the Will. Augustine had firm opinion about law and justice and thought that in a civilised society, it is important to have proper legal machinery to guide the citizens, and without that guidance, citizens might become too free and encroach another person's rights which could be the root cause of evils and evils do not occur without a human cause. "Such evil could not occur unless someone caused it" (p. 1). Despite legal compulsions, people tend to commit grave crimes, in the hope that they would be able to hoodwink the law. Augustine lays great stress on 'learning', so that the citizens could stay away from crime with knowledge that came from the learning. Still he agrees that they can turn away from the knowledge and commit the crimes. "Perhaps because they turn away from learning and become strangers to it.it follows that doing evil is nothing but turning away from learning' (p.2). Augustine is of the opinion that despite learning and the law regulation, people can still commit grievous crimes to others and such people should be punished by the law. He also agrees that there is another kind of murder which is not sinful. When Evodius asks him about the murder that is not sinful, ".when a judge or his representative puts a criminal to death.these people do not seem to me to be sinning when they kill someone" (pp. 6-7), Augustine agrees that such people are not called murderers. It is a just killing. He states that a real, intended crime should never go

Eastman Kodak - Comprehensive Strategic Plan Memo Essay

Eastman Kodak - Comprehensive Strategic Plan Memo - Essay Example Key insights from the organizational and industry analysis report The industry analysis revealed that the imaging industry is a swiftly developing industry which requires the organizations operating in the industry to be highly innovative and adaptive. The rapid development of digital technology brought about a far-reaching change in this industry, and Eastman Kodak could not adapt to it as fast as many of its competitors. Thus, Eastman Kodak lost its foremost position in the photographic equipment and supplies market. The company had to compete with established players who innovated faster than it and build a strong foot hold in the industry in addition to encountering substitute producing companies like HP, Xerox, and Canon etc. The key matter that Kodak had to face in building its position in the digital imaging sector was that though it held the top position in terms of the conventional photography business associated with photo films, its position in context of digital imaging was very weak in comparison to its established competitors (Blackwell Publishing, 2012). The key assets of Eastman Kodak that could be its source of competitive edge over its rival companies are its brand equity and awareness in addition to its internationally wide-reaching distribution presence. Moreover, in context of technology, Kodak had made years of investments in research and development activities, which had resulted in the establishment of proprietary technologies. This research and development experience of the company can be regarded as one of its biggest strengths (Kodak, 2009; Grant, n.d.). Eastman Kodak will have to assemble its substantial set of resources and competencies in addition to building new organizational competencies necessary for thriving in this fast pace industry. This is essential to develop and reinforce Eastman Kodak’s position in the digital imaging industry. Analysis of Eastman Kodak's approach to creating a competitive advantage Eastman Kodak attempted to set up its competitive advantage by leveraging on its core strengths as an organization and industrial leader over the years. The conjugation of the company’s renowned brand name, its huge investment in research and development activities over the years, and its global network of manufacturing and distribution, was vital for the creation of Eastman Kodak’s competitive position (Kodak, 2012a). The company had diverged its focus from its original product photographic films and started concentrating on its digital

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Augustine's View on the Death Penalty Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Augustine's View on the Death Penalty - Essay Example "He needed and wanted God, convinced that he could never achieve happiness in God-fewer worlds. But at the same time, he could not deny the sometimes overpowering presence of evil in himself and the world," Burt (1996, p.13). Augustine argued that all beings came from one God and such a God cannot be the cause of evil. But he acknowledges that there is Evil in the world and law can only control it, but cannot completely eliminate it. It is not easy to point out at a single cause of evil and the person who creates evil is responsible for that part of evil that is his creation. The Justice of God will punish the evil-doer. Asked closely by Evodius, Augustine says that if we believe in the laws, we should try to understand whether the laws punish a murderer justly or unjustly. When it comes to killing, Augustine favours the killing in self-defence and feels that it is not exactly a murder. Also he says that some murders like a soldier killing an enemy cannot be classified as murders, because the soldier here is merely an agent of the law, because he did not kill to satisfy his own desires. At the same time, law, which orders him to kill, does not have any desires of its own. He did not stand by a strict understanding of moral autonomy which, he thought could be an error consisting of impossibility. "Where human beings are concerned, there is no such thing as being free from a law that is imposed from without; to deny the authority of the eternal law is not moral adulthood but moral perversity. Moral uprightness therefore consists in submission to this eternal and immutable truth, which is not of our own making," says Williams in Introduction (xvii) of On Free Choice of the Will. Augustine had firm opinion about law and justice and thought that in a civilised society, it is important to have proper legal machinery to guide the citizens, and without that guidance, citizens might become too free and encroach another person's rights which could be the root cause of evils and evils do not occur without a human cause. "Such evil could not occur unless someone caused it" (p. 1). Despite legal compulsions, people tend to commit grave crimes, in the hope that they would be able to hoodwink the law. Augustine lays great stress on 'learning', so that the citizens could stay away from crime with knowledge that came from the learning. Still he agrees that they can turn away from the knowledge and commit the crimes. "Perhaps because they turn away from learning and become strangers to it.it follows that doing evil is nothing but turning away from learning' (p.2). Augustine is of the opinion that despite learning and the law regulation, people can still commit grievous crimes to others and such people should be punished by the law. He also agrees that there is another kind of murder which is not sinful. When Evodius asks him about the murder that is not sinful, ".when a judge or his representative puts a criminal to death.these people do not seem to me to be sinning when they kill someone" (pp. 6-7), Augustine agrees that such people are not called murderers. It is a just killing. He states that a real, intended crime should never go

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

An Analysis on the Juvenile Justice System Dissertation

An Analysis on the Juvenile Justice System - Dissertation Example Young, O'Donnell and Clare (2001) in their report to the National Crime Council for the period 1950 - 1998 stated that, first and foremost, it had been difficult finding conclusive data for the majority of the period covered reflecting the lack of coordination on maintaining data on juvenile justice for the majority of the period of time covered in the report. Additionally, during the time period analyzed the age groupings fluctuated which made data gathering even more difficult. Several of the periods had overlapping age groups represented in several categories and during a 20 year period data was categorized for the age group 17 to 21 which did not reflect if the crimes were even committed by juveniles per se. Upon completion of the report, however, and with the limitations set forth previously addressed Young, O'Donnell and Clare (2001) presented their findings noting several general trends. Since 1958 the trend of juvenile offenses has been very erratic with marked differences fr om year to year in some cases. Figure 1 below shows the number of juvenile cases by year for the 40 year period. As seen from the above graph the highest recorded period of juvenile crime was in 1961 when 3,333 cases were reported. 1976 saw a dramatic drop in juvenile crime which may actually be a reflection of the change of reporting practices as opposed to an actual drop. As seen in the above chart since 1990 with the exception of 1996 juvenile crime has been decreasing at a steady rate. 1997 showed the all time low of only 465 cases while the following year the number juvenile offences increased slightly to 573. During the entire period of the study Young, O'Donnell and Clare (2001) reported that juveniles accounted for 23% of all reported crime in Ireland. The rate has not increased above 30% since 1961 and since the early 1990's has been 15% or less which reflects in the total number of youth being arrested for criminal offences. By 1997 only 9% of all crimes were committed by juveniles. This rose

Monday, October 14, 2019

Grief Counseling and Process Intervention Essay Example for Free

Grief Counseling and Process Intervention Essay Abstract Grief comes in different forms and affects each person differently. Webster’s dictionary describes grief as â€Å"deep sadness caused especially by someones death, a cause of deep sadness, and trouble or annoyance†. Grief is associated with loss; loss of people, place, or thing. It is a universal experience that happens to all life. In multicultural counseling a counselor should be able to effectively treat and deal with the issues of grief, as they relate to divers groups. The boundaries between normal and complicated grief is a process. The factors of cultural, social and religious influence, also influences the grief and the level of anxiety that is raised due to that grief. Different people behave differently on the same sort of loss, and this makes it important to understand the impact which the loss has on the person. This diversity warrants further research on the topic of grief counseling and process interventions which have to be chosen in different circumstances with different people. Grief Counseling and Process Intervention Grief is a common reality of everyone’s life and almost all have to go through a phase where the loss is too big to handle. Altmaier (2011) states that, the strength of anxiety, stress and grief from a loss depends on the closeness and importance of that lost thing in the life of the person. Many researchers (Ober, et al., 2012; Howarth, 2011; Breen, 2011) have highlighted that death is one of the typical forms of complex loss that most people experienced at least once in their lives. The bereavement of loss of life can be far more devastating to an individual’s behavior and social functioning than any other type of losses. Such bereavement is common in  all cultures and there can seldom be a person who is not disturbed about the loss of a loved one (Howarth, 2011). However, the social detachment and the level of anxiety and depression after the loss can vary from culture to culture, closeness of relation with the deceased one, and the nature of the person. For this reason group counselors have to study and understand the nature and level of grief in order to use the correct strategy and process intervention for grief recovery (Altmaier, 2011). Discussion The term ‘best practices’ has been used in relation with group counseling to analyze the practices that are mostly applicable with people in grief (Kato Mann, 2009). However, several researchers (Baier Buechsel, 2012; Ober, 2011) have canceled out this term and claimed that each case would stand different and unique from the other. Because of this, generalizing the grief counseling process and intervention can be unsuccessful. Understanding the varied state of mind and grief symptoms of anger, depression, loneliness, anxiety and other symptoms are necessary for group counseling (Baier Buechsel, 2012). The Impact of Loss and Bereavement The research of Sussman (2011) founds that the grief and bereavement after a loss has different impacts on males, females and children. It has been discovered that men cope with a loss and their state of depression more quickly than women and children. The beginning of this fact can be related to the natural characteristics and the sensitivity of each individual, which is greater in women and children than in men. Stroebe, et al., (2009) separated the impact of loss into three phases and has illustrated that every individual that has experienced a loss will go through these three phases. The first phase is the instant shock where the person is in a mid-state of accepting the loss. Many people take a long time to accept the fact that a certain loss has occurred (Stroebe, Stroebe, Hansson, 2009). This has been a common view in the cases of deaths of loved ones, particularly with females and young children. This stage has the first reactions of mourning, yelling, protesting, showing anger and frustration loudly and not welcoming the occurrence of the loss (Howarth, 2011). In the second phase the loss is accepted mentally, but there remains the after  effects of the loss, in the form of social impairment and detachment of the person from the social group and/or preferring to be alone (Stroebe, Stroebe, Hansson, 2009). This is the phase where the counselors needs to get involved and observe the symptoms of the person and the duration of the loss event to know the technique and structure that needs to be used in such a situation Higgins (2009). The third phase of acceptance, is on in which the person accepts the loss and develops the belief that nothing can change the reality and life has to move on (Stroebe, Stroebe, Hansson, 1999). Allumbach Hoyt (2009) focuses the fact that grief counseling should not be stopped early in this phase, as there are chances that the patient could return to the second phase again (Allumbach Hoyt, 2009). The concept of cognitive therapy is introduced to be sure that the complete transaction of the person in grief takes place from the second phase of emotional distress and pain to the third phase of recovering and moving on with the life by suppressing the memories of the loss person or thing (Altmaier, 2011). A complex perspective of the grief loss is in the context of young children. Malkinson (2010) underlines the cognitive learning procedure of humans and explains that children from age two- five do not have a solid understanding of loss or death (Malkinson, 2010). They carry likelihood that whatever is gone will return back one day. This is typical in the case of their deceased pets, siblings or parents. As they go into adolescence they develop a better understanding of death and that the departed will not return. A loss of loved one at this stage can be very challenging because the child is already dealing with the questions of self-identity and life-direction. This type of loss can block the mindset, behavior and thinking capability of the child Higgins (2009). Process, Intervention, and Structure Several theorists have addressed the fact that after a loss people usually feel lonely and prefer to be alone as they cannot fill the space made by the loss object or person (Watson West 2006). A person being bankrupted and losing all his life savings in a flash has a high chance of getting isolated from the society and ending up as a depression patient or with physical disorders like brain tumor, high blood pressure or other disorders that happen due to stress and tension (Watson West 2006). If a therapist is consulted in such a scenario then the first thing to do is to understand  beliefs and conjectures which the person is carrying regarding the loss. They may think that people will make fun of them or they will lose their social status. They also may think that they will not be able to take care of their family and children etc. These are the thoughts that the person develops in the second phase of loss. They can become mentally and emotionally weak, not able to look at the brighter side of the scenario or what is left (Baier Buechsel, 2012). In the Task-Oriented Approach forwarded by Doel (2006), Eaton Roberts (2002) shows that the mechanism of motor performance of each individual suffering from losses processed and structured with a technique to make the person believe that the intensity and level of loss is not as big as it is perceived by the person. In his study Doel (2006) defines the practice of using volunteers who can form group with the person to be treated and the volunteers. They will act if they have not had a much greater loss and can share how they have coped with it. This has proved to be a good strategy if conducted in a proper fashion and establishing that the events described by other are similar in nature but unique from one another (Eaton Roberts, 2002). The second task is of helping the person to erase the old memories related to that person, business or any other object. The motif here is not to separate the person from the loss, but to lessen the grief and bereavement that is closely associated to the memories of the loss (Eaton Roberts, 2002). The task oriented intervention for grief counseling shows great limitations when it is implied for the grief therapy of parents who have lost their young children in an accident or been killed. Such cases were abundant after the devastating event of 9/11 and a lot of parents showed little or no recovery by the use of task oriented process and stayed in their state of depression and emotional pain. Brown (2006) has forwarded the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Model for the grief counseling of people in complicated bereavement like those who have experienced sudden death of a loved one, particularly their children. The ground of this intervention is due to the difference between the rational and the irrational thinking of the distressed people. Irrational thinking makes them perceive their lives to be intolerable without the existence of the deceased one (Brown, 2006). In the CBT process, close bonds are developed with such people and they are given the chance to express the effect of such a loss on their present and future.  This presumption, usually based on irrational thinking, is first replicated by other irrational support (Malkinson, 2010). For example, if a mother has lost her child then she is made to believe that her child will be remembered as the one who sacrificed his/her life and he/she would have attained a higher state in the heaven. The parallel of the irrational thinking with other irrational belief was carried out in the study of Cigno (2006) on ‘Cognitive-behavioral practice’ with 18 mothers and 11 fathers whom children became victim of the street crimes or terrorist activities. Cigno found out that 72.4% of the parents in this research showed signs of improvement and were able to enter the second phase of loss grief to the third phase. At this stage, activities of social engagement and task oriented approach can be available to ensure maximum grief recovery of those people (Cigno, 2006). The Complicated Grief Intervention Model (CGIM) To empower the counselors and the social workers in treating complicated grief, there is a need of a model that can define the approach and plan of counselors when they are dealing with a bereaved person (Morris, 2006). The grief of loss of the loved one, a major business downfall or other losses which have a great impact on the outlook of one’s life can be included in complicated grief. The counselor assesses the need and the present condition of the bereaved one in the first step of the model. This is not limited to the emotional state, but also to the practical side; the work and family responsibilities of the bereaved one that are affected by the disposition of the person. These things can be assessed by using the narrative technique and asking the people about their stories related to the lost person or object. A secondary assessment is also suggested where the friends or family members of the bereaved one are interviewed to know the extent of grief (Altmaier, 2011). When the counselor prescribes activities or medicines to the bereaved person this is the second stage is of intervention. It has been a common observation by many researchers (Watson West, 2006; Silversides, 2011; Morris (2006) that counselors are not result-oriented in their intervention. Silversides (2011) discusses that many counselors do not plan the outcome of the activity and they do not regularly evaluate the success of the activity. Because of this practice the recovery is temporary. There have been cases reported to have developed the  same state of depression and grief after the therapy was over (Silversides, 2011). For instance, if a hobby is suggested to the bereaved person to exercise, some of the questions that need to be answered are: what will be the duration of the exercise? What end results it will bring or tend to bring? How will it help the bereaved person to replicate the negative irrational thinking with positive irrational thinking? What will be the consequences of the exercise after it is discontinued for more than 6 months? What will be the approach if the person develops the same state of mind again? Answering these questions prior to starting the intervention strategy will raise the probability of achieving desired results over the anticipated time (Drenth, Herbst, Strydom, 2010). It is evident that some part of the therapy, like counseling sessions and workshops cannot last forever and they need to be stopped after some period, while few of the routine activities can be carried on for a much longer period as the person wants to. It is necessary for the social worker or counselor to understand the significance of the activities and which are for finite period, and analyze if there would be a need to prolong, modify or substitute it with another activity as per the requirement of the person (Johnsen, Dyregrov, Dyregrov, 2012). It is both natural and biblical to grieve. The reality is that no matter how happy those who have gone are, and how much they gain by the move, the loss is suffered , and trying to live in denial of this reality is not heroic but caving in to social or religious pressure that is not of God. There is much evidence that those who confront their inner pain head-on, heal quickest. Inner pain will gradually retreat when we face it, but it will keep haunting us if we run from it. â€Å"Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed. All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned everyone to his own way; and the LORD hath laid on him the iniquity of us all (Isaiah 53:4-6, KJV). Conclusion Grief is a natural occurring and almost every human goes through this phenomenon at some point of time in his or her life. The extent of grief is dependent on factors of closeness with the lost person or thing and the  rational and irrational thinking that the person has developed after the loss. The state of complex grief or bereavement occurs mostly in the case of losing the love ones and entering into the state of loneliness, anger and depression. The degree of these symptoms is more pronounced in teen agers and women. It is for this reason that counselors have to understand the nature and extent of the grief and the irrational thinking that have been developed as a result to prescribe a therapy or activity that best suits the need of the bereaved one. References Allumbach, L., Hoyt, W. (2009). Effectiveness of grief therapy: A meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 46, 370–380. Altmaier, E. (2011). Best Practices in Counselling Grief and Loss: Finding Benefit From Trauma. Journal of Mental Health Counseling , 33 (1), 33-47. Baier, M., Buechsel, R. (2012). A model to help bereaved individuals understand the grief process. Mental Health Practice, 16(1), 28-32. Breen, L. (2011). Professionals experiences of grief counseling: implications for bridging the gap between research and practice. Omega, 62(3), pp. 285-303. Brown, H.C., 2006, ‘Counseling’, in R. Adams, L. Dominelli M. Payne (eds.), Social work. Themes, issues and critical debates, pp. 139–148, Palgrave, London. Cigno, K., 2006, ‘Cognitive-behavioral practice’, in R. Adams, L. Dominelli M. Payne (eds.), Social work. Themes, issues and critical debates, pp. 180–190, Palgrave, London. Doel, M., 2006, ‘Task-Centered workâ⠂¬â„¢, in R. Adams, L. Dominelli M. Payne (eds.), Social work. Themes, issues and critical debates, pp. 191–199, Palgrave, London. Drenth, C., Herbst, A., Strydom, S. (2010). A complicated grief intervention model. Journal of interdisciplinary Health sciences , 10 (1), 97-109. Eaton, Y.M. Roberts, A.R., 2002, ‘Frontline crisis intervention: Step-by-step practice guidelines with case applications’, in A.R. Roberts G.J. Greene (eds.), Social workers’ desk reference, pp. 89–96, University Press, Oxford. Higgins, P. C. (2009). Grief Counseling and Grief Therapy: A Handbook for the Mental Health Practitioner, Fourth Edition. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 12(7), 653-654. doi:10.1089/jpm.2009.9590 Holland, J. M., Neimeyer, R. A., Boelen, P. A., Prigerson, H. G. (2009). The underlying structure of grief: A taxometric investigation of prolonged and normal reactions to loss. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 31(3), 190-201. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10862-008-9113-1 Howarth, R. A. (2011). Concepts and controversies in grief and loss. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 33(1), 4-10. Retrieved from Johnsen, I., Dyregrov, A., Dyregrov, K. (2012). Participants with prolonged grief how do they benefit from grief group participation. Omega, 65(2), pp. 87-105. Kato, P., Mann, T. (2009). A sysnthesis of psychological intervention for the bereaved. Clinical Psychology , 16, 275-296. Malkinson, R. (2010). Cognitive-Behavioral Grief Therapy: The ABC Model of Rational-Emotion Behavior Therapy. Psychological Topics , 2, 289-305. Morris, T., 2006, Social work research methods: four alternative paradigms, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks. Ober, A. M., Granello, D. H., Wheaton, J. E. (2012). Grief counseling: An investigation of counselors training, experience, and competencies. Journal of Counseling and Development: JCD, 90(2), 150-159. Retrieved from Silversides, A. (2011). When loss leads in new directions. Jane Simington shares hard-won lessons about healing. The Canadian Nurse, 107(6), 34-35. Stroebe, M., Stroebe, W., Hansson, R. (1999). Handbook of Bereavement: Theory, Research, and Intervention. New York: Press Syndicate .

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Smoking, diabetes and alcohol in the Maori culture

Smoking, diabetes and alcohol in the Maori culture Task 1 Introduction The region that I have chosen to study is Auckland Region and my research of Hauora Maori trends and contemporary issue are smoking, diabetes and alcohol which extract from housing, education, employment, lifestyle and health statistics. Te Whare Tapa Wha is a traditional approach to Hauora base on Whanau, Tinana, Wairua and Hinengaro to understand Maori health with a strong foundation of Maori well-being. The areas that I have written about are Literature Review for collating, analyzing and presenting in finding on this research. Maori patients receiving a lower standard care than non-Maori from primary and secondary health care providers. It was some non-consistent results relationships between suppliers and patients. Explain the research methodology Smoking: the researcher used qualitative research with 60 pregnant Maori women in the womens 17-43 ages. The questionnaire was used to guide the interview. Responses were categorized using Te Whare Tapa Wha (the four-sided house), an indigenous theoretical framework. Diabetes: the researcher used quantitative and statistical analysis to compare different ethic group of health and care status that attending general practices with diabetes. Obesity: the researcher used statistical analysis which collected data from children in 60 countries, suggested that childhood obesity in New Zealand is increasing at one of the greatest rate in the world (Wang Lobstein 2006). Similar results can be seen among adult in New Zealand which indicated that 26.5 percent of adult were obese (Ministry of Health, 2008). Describe the research methodology Literature Review Obstract Smoking, diabetes and obesity are still the most prevalent for Maori than any other ethnic group in New Zealand.Maori women are particularly high smoking rates. In 1996, the proportion of Maori women who smoked who smoked one or more cigarettes per day was more than twice than non-Maori women. Thirty-nine percent of Maori women smoke during pregnancy. On the other hand, diabetes is also the high risk health issue among Maori in New Zealand. In addition, obesity among children and adult Maori is also high compare to non-Maori. 1. Smoking (Why Maori women continue to smoke while pregnant?) Smoking is the biggest killer of Maori. Not only did the tobacco smoking accounts in 1989-1993, one-third of Maori deaths from smoking-related diseases plaguing the concept of Maori. It was nearly 60 per cent of Maori that smoked in 1976 and dropped to 50 per cent in 1991 but it hasn’t changed much since then. New Zealand health promotion and promotion education tried to reduce Maori smoking but it was not success in the last fifteen years. Unchanged Maori smoking prevalence showed low activity between either quit or quit Maori success rate. By the 1976, Maori women between aged of 20 to 24 had the highest smoking rate at 69 per cent and it was increased to 70 per cent in 1981. Up to two-thirds of pregnant Maori women smoke. Sudden infant death syndrome, asthma, glue ear, lung infection rate, rheumatic fever is common among Maori children. Education: There are poor understanding of the risks associated with smoking during pregnancy. Life Style: They lived in the smoky environment or with a partner who smoked. Some they used smoking as a method to release their stress. 2. Diabetes (between Maori and non-Maori) Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness, kidney failure and lower extremity amputation. It is also major risk factor for nerve damage, stroke, heart attack, heart failure and early death. The Ministry of Health estimates that 210 million people will be affected by diabetes through 2012. Certain ethnic groups (especially Maori, Pacific Islanders and South Asia), since 1996 in diabetes and high-risk data suggested that the incidence of diabetes in Maori and Pacific peoples are more than three times higher interest rates than in Europe, and the Maori and Pacific peoples are more than five times the likelihood of diabetes 2 is dead. Lifestyle: Most of people are lack of exercise and had unhealthy diet plan option with including of high fat food that can cause them to become overweight and it can also cause other health condition. 3. Obesity (Among children and adult Maori) Obesity is one of the major health issues in New Zealand in recent year which affected in every age and ethic group. While population studies have shed much light on obesity and its growing prevalence, it is important to interpret finding with caution, especially in regard to Maori health. In the 2008 report shown that adult Maori had the highest rate of obesity than non-Maori. 41.7 per cent of adult Maori were obese compare to 24.3 percent in European (Ministry of Health, 2008). Thus, considering the importance of overall wellbeing to Maori, as expressed by contemporary Maori health models, both the prevention and reduction of obesity among Maori would go a long way to achieving Maori health aspirations and advancing Maori lifestyles. Employment: Maori do not have much chance to find a job because they have a low degree or qualification because they left school early. Statistics show that Maori have the highest rate of unemployment in New Zealand. Lifestyle: Because of unemployment, they do not have enough money to buy or provide nutrition food for themselves or their children and also nowadays, there are a lot of fast food shops everywhere and it is cheap so it is easy for them to buy without cooking. Task 2 The Research Finding 1. Smoking One of the most disadvantaged groups in New Zealand society is Maori women as they have the highest prevalence of smoking. The investigation has been shown that Maori women smoke at the age of 15-24 years old up to nearly 61%; aged 25-29 years in 39%, while 57% of 30-39-year-old. In 2007, the first registration of midwives, 19% of pregnant women were smoking in New Zealand and it declined slightly to 15%, when discharged from nursing midwives still smoking. Maori women are much higher prevalence with smoking at the first registration with midwife at 43% and there is 34% still smoking at discharge. Smoking during pregnancy can cause a problem of miscarriage and difficulties during childbirth. Women who continue to smoke during pregnancy may be living in a household with other smokers, partners, family and friends who smoke. In addition, qualitative study found that addiction, habit and stress are the reason pregnant women continue to smoke. It is a very challenging to reduce smoking a mong pregnant women in New Zealand and international as it is a priority over a decade. The reseachers found out that 88% of 60 pregnant Maori participation had a partner and the average aged was 26. 23% of participants did not have a degree, only 38% had some employment. More than half of the participants (68%) live in urban areas. Almost the same numbers of participants were in to the second (43%) or third (40%) trimester of their pregnancy and 38% were having their first baby. They smoked around 9 cigarattes per day and within 5 minute for their first cigaratted after woke up (Table 1). There were also some reasons that they smoked such as habit, stress, addiction etc (Table 2). Moreover, social and work environment were also a factor that related to their smoking because they lived with their family or partner who are smoking. When they were at workplace, they smoked with their colleagues or other people and it was easy to smoke at work because they just went out whenever they want (Table 3). 2. Diabetes No other disease is a significant health inequalities more apparent than when we look at diabetes. Diabetes is nearly three times more common in Maori than non-Maori. Due to diabetes, Maori in the 45-64 age group have a death rate 9 times higher than non-Maori. Maori are diagnosed younger, more likely to develop complications of diabetes, such as eye disease, kidney failure, stroke and heart disease. Type 2 diabetes is expected to increase significantly over the next 20 years (along with pre-diabetes, insulin resistance and obesity) and the biggest impact is on Maori, Pacific people, and those living in poor areas. Type 2 diabetes, including prevalence, age of onset, mortality and hospitalization rates ethic inequality : Maori in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, the estimated average age was 47.8 years old in 1996, six years younger than New Zealand European (54.2 years) (Ministry of Health 2002). In 2002/03, ther self-reported prevalence of diabetes was 2.5 times higher among Maori than non-Maori (Ministry of Health 2006). The estimated lifetime risk of being diagnosed with diabetes for MÄ ori in 1996 was more than double that for New Zealand Europeans (Ministry of Health 2002). The death rates in type 2 diabetes for non-Maori are 7 times lower than Maori. The different in death rate is higher in the aged 45 to 64, where Maori women with type 2 diabetes die 13 times than non-Maori women and 10 times for maori men compare to non-Maori men. Due to type 2 diabetes, the risk for hospitalisation of Maori is 4 times higher than non-Maori. 3. Obesity Rate of obesity and obesity-related illness, are associated with socioeconomic status, with the greatest rate among the least deprived classes (Drewnowski Specter, 2004). This finding has major implications for Maori who are proportionately over represented in the more deprived quintile, having an annual income approximately 20 per cent lower than Europeans in New Zealand (Statistics New Zealand, 2006). What’s more, the 2006/07 NZHS showed that the time children spent watching television, as well as their â€Å"fizzy drink† and â€Å"fast food† consumption, were higher in areas of high neighbourhood deprivation than in areas of low deprivation (Ministry of Health, 2008). Likewise, these three measures were higher within Maori children compared with the general population (Ministry of Health, 2008). Obesity is detrimental to the health and function of many systems of the body including digestion, the immune system, respiration and pulmonary function, reproductive health, bones and joints, and even the health of skin. Hospitalisation and mortality from heart failure is much higher for Maori than non-Maori in New Zealand. The link between obesity and CVD is multifaceted, affecting blood pressure, altering blood lipid profile, and increasing cardiac expenditure in order to compensate for increased circulation requirements in the obese. The relationship between obesity and the health disorder identified hightlights the importance of reducing and preventing obesity among Maori, to reduce health inequalities in New Zealand as well as lengthen and improve quality of life in Maori. Task 3 Present research finding and explain a present day health priority for Maori 1. Smoking The reasearch has been shown that the full range of ill-effects of smoking in pregnancy Maori knowledge is limited and not many of them know about the quitline. Even they received a support from their whanau but in fact that their whanau also smoked. Strategies were being used to inform Maori about effective or risks associated with smoking during pregnancy, and it seemed not effectively reach Maori women. One of the current risk program is that it waits for pregnant Maori women come in contact with the health system. This may mean that some women do not get support to quit until late in pregnancy. New Zealand has been focusing on tobacco control on young Maori women, in particular, not to smoke and not to develop a regular habit of smoking. In order to prevent on smoking, New Zealand had a restrictions on smoking legislation in shared office, shops and food preparation areas, public places of public transportation and dining, a ban on tobacco advertising and sponsorship of sports, o r a gift to under l8s, sports sponsorship smoking. The promotion of smoke-free pregnancy, smoking cessation assistance needs to be extended to the whole whanau. Impact of maternal smoking on pregnant women around education can help communities. 2. Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is not a sudden illness. The disease reflects the complexity and interaction of our bodies and our environment, including the social determinants of health, low socioeconomic status, and racism-related stress and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is one of many factors contributing to low Maori health status. A strategy for reducing the impact of diabetes on Maori must be set with in the context of making general improvments in Maori health status. It has been well defined and incorporates a number of principles including the Treaty of Waitangi, Ottawa Charter and Te Whare Tapa Wha. The treaty recognises that Maori need to receive effective health care services that reflect the needs and world view of Maori. The development of Maori communities and infrastructures that are consistent with Maori values and provide a positive healthy lifestyle is accepted as central to improving Maori health status. A guiding priciple is that services need to be developed by Ma ori with Maori for Maori. Diabetes services need to be developed as part of an integrated health care service. NgÄ tiPorou Hauora (NPH) on the east coast is implementing a program called NgÄ ti and Health, is characterized by promoting healthy eating and regular exercise lifestyle to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (Tipene-Leach et al 2004; NgÄ ti Porou Hauora 2007). The programme also aims to improve the conditions of diabetes and pre-diabetes awareness in those who are at high risk of developing diabetes and communities. In order to improve diabetes care for Maori is to ensure early detection and primary prevention of diabetes. Secondly, regional and local services can provide access to their services and quality problems, develop strategies to improve service delivery, and monitor the effectiveness of these changes. 3. Obesity In all aspect of health, research is relatively limited in Maori when compared with European/Caucasian groups. Although this could be looked on as obstructive to achieving successful outcomes for Maori, the limites body of research in this area is also a great opportunity for Maori to design and lead research that will have the most benefit for Maori. Lastly, by focusing research and intervention on how to improve physical health alone, the researchers are diregarding the othe aspects of well being identified in contemporary Maori health models. Thus, a line of research which could be great benefit to Maori would be aimed at understanding the effects of obesity on te taha wairua, hinengaro, whanau, tinana and from the result, developing intervention which maintian the balance of overall wellbeing. As has been touched upon, Maori involvement in all aspects of health from research to dilivery of services in essential. According to He Korowai Oranga (The Maori Health Strategy) involveme nt should ne at whanau, community and Iwi levels for maximum Maori participation (Ministry of Health, 2002). Because children with obese parents are more likely to become obese aldults themselves, interventions such as the â€Å"Healthy Eating-Healthy Action Plan† which are being implimented in many New Zealand schools, maybe more effective when parents and whanau are involved. What’s more, because of the part whanau play in the achievement of hauora, this approch may also be more culturally appropriate for Maori. Training in cultural sensitivity and Maori system of health for non-Maori health workers as well as participation in all aspects of planning and delivery is essential to developing policies tha twill achieve the desired outcome in this case, bringing to an end the obesity epidemic amoung Maori.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Accelerated Reading :: Teaching Education

Accelerated Reading A.R. reading is the new choice of torture among teachers across the Issaquah School District (411). A.R. stands for Accelerated Reading. This is the process in which a student will take a vocabulary test at the beginning of the school year which will be graded. On this grading scale, students receive a reading range in which they are aloud to read books according to their difficulty level. As well as having to read according to what your reading level is, you have to also gain points by taking a test on the book you previously read. The number of points a book is worth has to do with its difficulty. For example; a book with a reading level of 10.5 with 390 pages and a character sizing of 10 point, might be worth 45 points. But a book with a reading level of 2.0 with 15 pages and a character size of 35, might be worth 1 point. In Ms. Hardy’s 4th period class, all students had to earn 60 points, 30 A.R., and 30 not A.R. this counts as 20 percent of your grade. When asked, "What is the point of A.R.?" Mr. Brown, a 7th and 8th grade woodshop and cooking teacher answered, "We love to see you suffer!" Honestly, A.R. really is pointless. Instead of forcing reading onto kids, teachers should make it fun. And teachers might even make it so it doesn’t make or break your grade. If you take the time to think about it, the average reading level is about 8.5. The average point level for a book is about the same, 8.5. The average person reads about two pages per minute, and the average number of pages for an 8 point book is about 300 to 350. Therefor, the average person would have to read about an hour a day, on top of the average amount of homework for each class which is about a half hour per class per day, so this adds up to about 3 to 4 hours of homework a day, not counting projects and studying for tests.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Attendance monitoring system Essay

CERTIFICATE This is to certify that this report embodies the original work done by Saurebh Kumar Jain, Uma Joshi and Bhupesh Kumar Sharma during this project submission as a partial fulfillment of the requirement for the System Design Project of Masters of Computer Application IV Semester, of the Rajasthan Technical University, Kota. Attendance Management System Introduction:Attendance Management System is a software developed for daily student attendance in schools, collages and institutes. If facilitates to access the attendance information of a particular student in a particular class. The information is sorted by the operators, which will be provided by the teacher for a particular class. This system will also help in evaluating attendance eligibility criteria of a student. Purpose:The purpose of developing attendance management system is to computerized the tradition way of taking attendance. Another purpose for developing this software is to generate the report automatically at the end of the session or in the between of the session Scope: The scope of the project is the system on which the software is installed, i.e. the project is developed as a desktop application, and it will work for a particular institute. But later on the project can be modified to operate it online. 6 Attendance Management System Technology Used:Language:-VB.NET Backend:-MS-Access System Requirement:Minimum RAM:-256 MB Hard Disk:-40 GB Processor:-Intel Pentium 4 Operating System:-Windows XP Service Pack2 Overview:Attendance Management System basically has two main modules for proper functioning †¢ First module is admin which has right for creating space for new batch. Any entry of new faculty, Updation in †¢ Second module is handled by the user which can be a attendance, generating report. Attendance can be taken in two ways: †¢ On the basis of Subject and month. 7 Attendance Management System †¢ On the basis of Class. 8 Attendance Management System Economically Feasibility: The system being developed is economic with respect to School or Collage’s point of view. It is cost effective in the sense that has eliminated the paper work completely. The system is also time effective because the calculations are automated which are made at the end of the month or as per the user requirement. The result obtained contains minimum errors and are highly accurate as the data is required. Technical feasibility: The technical requirement for the system is economic and it does not use any other additional Hardware and software. Behavioral Feasibility: The system working is quite easy to use and learn due to its simple but attractive interface. User requires no special training for operating the system. Attendance Management System Working Of Present System In the present system all work is done on paper. The whole session attendance is stored in register and at the and of the session the reports are generated. We are not interested in generating report in the middle of the session or as per the requirement because it takes more time in calculation. At the end of session the students who don’t have 75% attendance get a notice. DISADVANTAGES OF PRESENT WORKING SYSTEM †¢ Not User Friendly: The existing system is not user friendly because the retrieval of data is very slow and data is not maintained efficiently. †¢ Difficulty in report generating: We require more calculations to generate the report so it is generated at the end of the session. And the student not get a single chance to improve their attendance †¢ Manual control: All calculations to generate report is done manually so there is greater chance of errors. †¢ Lots of paperwork: Existing system requires lot of paper work. Loss of even a single register/record led to difficult situation because all the papers are needed to generate the reports. †¢ Time consuming: Every work is done manually so we cannot generate report in the middle of the session or as per the requirement because it is very time consuming. 10 Attendance Management System CHAREACTERSTIC OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM †¢ User Friendly:- The proposed system is user friendlybecause the retrieval and storing of data is fast and data is maintained efficiently. Moreover the graphical user interface is provided in the proposed system, which provides user to deal with the system very easily. †¢ Reports are easily generated: reports can be easily generated in the proposed system so user can generate the report as per the requirement (monthly) or in the middle of the session. User can give the notice to the students so he/she become regular. †¢ Very less paper work: The proposed system requires very less paper work. All the data is feted into the computer immediately and reports can be generated through computers. Moreover work become very easy because there is no need to keep data on papers. †¢ Computer operator control: Computer operator control will be there so no chance of errors. Moreover storing and retrieving of information is easy. So work can be done speedily and in time. Attendance Management System 1. Login Form This login Form is made For Security purpose. So only Authenticated User only Access in to the Project. There are two Type of persons can enter in the project 1. Administrator 2. User 22 Attendance Management System 2. Add Information Form This form is showed when authorized administrator enters his correct User Name and Password. This Form gives the option to fill the name of Students and the name of Teacher if a new faculty has joined. 23 Attendance Management System 3. Student Information Form This form enables the Administrator to fill the name of Students and there Semester where the Student Id will change automatically when a Student is saved in the Database. And course Will Be remain same because this System is made for MCA Students. 24 Attendance Management System 4. Teacher Information Form This Form is made for Administrator to fill up the name of teachers when teacher Id is changed automatically. If a new teacher joined the collage its name also is included in the System 25 Attendance Management System 5. User Form This form is opened when user fill up his correct User Name and Password and User Type Is user. The is form enables the user to fill up attendance of every student and see whish student is short listed and what is the total attendance of each individual attendance in a particular Subject and in a particular month 26 Attendance Management System 6. Semester Form This form facilitates the user to choose a semester in which attendance is to be filled. In this system we are using the Fourth Semester so when the user clicks on Semester4 the list of Semester 4 students is come. 27 Attendance Management System 7. Attendance Form This Form is used to choose subjects and the month for which attendance is to be filled up and show a list of students. When a User click to corresponding Check box and click on save the students will be stated present and their attendance is added. 28 Attendance Management System 8. Report Form 8.1. Short List Form This form shows the list of Short listed students. We can see this list according to Subject wise and month wise. When user click on view, then list is shown accordingly. 29 Attendance Management System 8.2. Attendance Status Form This form shows the status of the students or we can say number of classes attended in a particular subject in a particular month. When user click on the ‘View Status’ button of short list form then this form will appear with the status. 30 Attendance Management System Conclusion The Attendance Management System is developed using Visual Basic.NET fully meets the objectives of the system which it has been developed. The system has reached a steady state where all bugs have been eliminated. The system is operated at a high level of efficiency and all the teachers and user associated with the system understands its advantage. The system solves the problem. It was intended to solve as requirement specification. 31 Attendance Management System Bibliography 1. The complete Reference Visual Basic.NET 2. Beginning VB.NET (Wrox Publication) 3. System Analysis and Design – Alias M. Awad 4. Software Engineering – Roger Pressman Websites 1. www.microsoft.com 2. www.w3schools.com 3. www.dotnetspider.com 32 Attendance Management System Future Scope Attendance Management System has many   

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Unit 18 Babies Development

E1-Summarise the factors which may influence the health and -development of babies in the first year of their lives There are many factors that affect health and development such as environmental factors, for example, a lack of space in the garden or outside play area will limit their gross motor and fine motor skills. â€Å"Generally, people with a high level of earnings enjoy a better lifestyle, with better housing, better food, warm clothes and own transport. † Meggit 2001 page 9 Genetics are also a major factor which may influence the health and development of the baby as some illnesses are inherited through genes.For example babies with Down's syndrome suffer due to a chromosomal abnormality which lead to problems such as heart defects and chest infections. Illness's in general can cause detrimental damage to a babies development, for example a baby may have asthma which is long term and is potentially life threatening in circumstances other illness's like meningitis can lead to many extreme conditions. The babies weight and height may be below average if they have not been developing correctly due to illness.Antenatal factors are also important to the baby such as certain foods like Camembert cheese can severely harm the baby, other illnesses like rubella can be detrimental to the unborn child’s health in the first 12-16 weeks as it can cause a miscarriage, still birth and defects such as brain damage, hearing loss and cataracts. Narcotics and alcohol can damage the child’s development during pregnancy, When the baby is being delivered, there may be complications which can affect the baby's health such as lack of oxygen, birth asphyxia, can be caused by the umbilical cord becoming entangled.Asphyxia can cause the baby permanent brain damage. E2-Describe how indoor and outdoor environments can be made safe, reassuring and stimulating By keeping to the adult to child ratio (1:3) and constantly supervising them, both indoor and outdoor e nvironments can be safe for babies. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is something that practitioners must be aware of when babies are sleeping and should check on the babies every 5 minutes while under supervision. To reduce SIDS babies should be placed at the bottom of the cot with a maximum of two blankets. Risk assessments should also be made for both inside and outside play. â€Å"It is important that the environment children are playing in is regularly checked, before and during activities. † Tassoni et al 2007 page 193 Practitioners must make sure they follow the correct policies and procedures and make sure all gates are locked to keep the children safe from possible threats. The indoor environment can be reassuring by having a key person in which the baby will form a bond with.The key person can ensure that the baby will have a routine that tailors for the individual needs by working with the parents. The baby can also be reassured with a comforter, a much loved object fr om home, being brought into the setting to help them feel more ‘at home' and settled. The environments can be made stimulating by having a range of activities to promote different areas of development, for example, a treasure basket which will contain different natural items inside to promote the use of senses.Visual displays and posters can be put low down so that babies can look and investigate them. Whilst outside the practitioner can take the babies out on walks to see nature or just a stroll around the town, in my current setting we take the babies on walks as our environment is quite colourful. A trip to the park is also good as it provides opportunities for those who walk early to be able to run and explore. E3-Describe the expected stage of development of babies at 7 months and how they can be expected to develop in the next 2 months of life.I have chosen 7 months as this is a busy time in development for babies, for example this is when a baby may be able to sit unaid ed for a short period of time whereas at 9 months the baby could sit unsupported for 10 minutes as their gross motor skills has developed more which has improve their balance. At 7 months the baby will have recently mastered how to swap objects in their hands â€Å"can move a toy from one hand to another. † Tassoni. P 2007 page40. whereas at 9 months the baby will bee attempting to use the pincer grip. as their fine motor skills have progressed as the child â€Å"can deliberately release objects by dropping them. Tassoni wt al 2007 page41. At 7 months babies pay attention to objects within their visual field, this progresses at 9 months to watching an object fall, for example building blocks, this is known as object permanence and is a result of their intellectual development. Language development is also improved drastically within this range: from babbling in tune at 7 months to repetition and imitation at 9 months. â€Å"babbles and starts to understand words such as â⠂¬Ëœbye-bye' and ‘no'. † Tassoni et al page 570. E4 -Explain how 2 different play activities/experiences can support the overall development of the baby described in E3.An activity which supports overall development of a 7 month old is musical instruments is the use of musical instruments, for example a drum, xylophone, rattle or bells. the babies sensory skills as a whole will be used and further developed from physically shaking the rattle, hearing the sound and seeing the colours of the instrument. The fine motor skills will also develop in different ways depending on the instrument, for example beating the drum or shaking the rattle, alongside developing concentration and hand-eye co-ordination.Musical instruments can also be used to extend and bring out the babies language as they may babble along with the music or repeat certain words. This type of activity can help with emotional development as a child could feel frustrated or agitated and being able to just make sounds with instruments can calm them down as they beat in tune. â€Å"Music is the transition of sharing ones emotions of any age to any person. † Loosely translated from Japanese from an interview of One OK Rock's lead singer Morita Takahiro . This also aids their social development as they play along and bond with the practitioner or parent. Music is an easy way for parents to relate to their children. When an infant hears you sing to them, you are connecting with them, and they are connecting to you. † http://www. halilit. co. uko. uk/hal_playsound. html Playing with building blocks is another fun activity that supports babies development. Building blocks helps the 7 month old start the process of learning the pincer grip by developing its fine motor skills by picking the blocks up also aiding the gross motor skills by moving around their arms gradually getting quicker.The baby will also start to develop the skills and strength to sit unaided for longer gaining bett er balance while playing. other benefit from this activity is better hand-eye co-ordination with carefully placing the blocks on top of each other and colour recognition. The baby may babble while playing with the adult in which furthering their language skills. E5- Describe the role of the practitioner in meeting the particular needs of babies in a group care setting. The practitioners role in meeting particular needs is demonstrated and performed in different ways, for example welcoming the parents and the baby to the setting.The practitioner needs to build trust with the parents and in turn will make the baby feel more at ease seeing their parents engage with the practitioner. The practitioner will plan the daily routine to cater for individual needs of all the babies such as likes and dislikes or any special requirements for the babies such as dietary needs. â€Å"In people with coeliac disease this immune reaction is triggered by gluten†¦ † www. coeliac. org. uk/coe liac-disease The care routine will cater to the babies, physical, intellectual, social and emotional development therefore before planning the practitioner needs to assess each babies individual needs.It is also important for the key worker to give one to one attention to the baby, as they will form a bond which will make the baby feel secure. The practitioner must also keep accurate records whilst there is a high level of supervision. They must also provide a safe stimulating environment by selecting suitable resources. E6 – Show how the child protection policies and procedures in the setting protect and safeguard the babies. There are many policies and procedures that protect and safeguard babies, for example can help identify any area's the baby needs help with.These observations must also be kept secure on a password protected computer or in a locked cupboard due to the Data Protection Act 1998. Keeping these records secure is a policy that is not only backed by legislati on but is important to safeguard babies as these records have personal information on the baby and its family. This would also tie in to the settings confidentiality policy as only the practitioners involved and parents have the right to access these files. † This act is concerned with the protection of personal information. † Tassoni et al page 224 The Every Child Matters nitiative brought from the Children Act 2004 has brought in the need of a delegated Safeguarding officer which any signs of abuse on a baby would be reported to as the baby itself cannot talk nor know what is happening to them. This policy is put in place to elect the member of staff mediately to prevent or stop child abuse from taking place. Their would be a policy in place to recruit staff safely so the parents, other members of staff and babies are not harmed and feel safe. † When they first join a setting they should undergo a CRB check.It is important that all staff read the child protection policies and procedures of the setting. † Tassoni et al 2007 page 128 â€Å"adult to child ratio in rooms, the qualification levels of staff. † Tassoni. et al 2007 page 117 There would also be a policy in place of which the staff are at the correct staff to baby ration of 1:3 to ensure the babies are thoroughly looked after and to be kept safe from accidents. E7 & D1- Explain the importance of well-planned care routines and the key worker system & Consider how care routines can enhance the overall development of babies from birth to 12 monthsBabies need well planned care routines to meet their individual needs, it is important as it promotes security and stability for the baby. An example of this is a well planned feeding routine that caters to all the babies needs that will make sure they get the right type and amount of milk throughout the day and keeping with the routine from home. This routine can help the child develop in multiple ways, such as their fine motor sk ills when gripping the bottle or simply sitting in a high chair developing their posture.This will also stimulate the muscles in the mouth and around the jaw which helps with the transition to solids and also aids speech, emotionally this helps with independence and will give the baby the confidence to hold the bottle themselves to feed. The adult will be able to talk to the baby whilst sitting in front of the high chair aiding the child’s social skills. once the transition to solids take place the child may improve their senses as they are able to touch, see, taste and smell the food, aiding this is the cold spaghetti activity. The babies bathing routine, if the setting requires this, should be also planned efficiently.It is important as it requires one to one time with the adult, this helps the baby feel secure. Bathing will also help the baby emotionally as it is a good experience in which the baby can relax in the warm water and calm down alongside this adding toys into t he bath adds both fine motor and gross motor development as the baby tries to grasp the slippery toy whilst kicking their legs with joy. Social development will also improve as the adult would sing and talk to the baby, asking questions to stimulate the babies intellectual development, these questions could benefit the sensory skills such as asking the baby to â€Å"touch the red fish†.Nappy changing is another routine which must be well planned. The baby's physical development will increase as they are able to kick their legs. This will also help prevent nappy rash as they are not wearing a nappy. Intellectually they will develop as they are learning opportunities, for example when the adult asks them questions. There will be opportunities to express their emotions which will help their emotional development. This also allows them to be aware of their care routine. Socially they will develop as they have a one on one with their key person.The key person can sing to the baby which will help language development. The key person works closely with a baby to build an attachment and a close relationship with their parents. They have many responsibilities, for instance settling the baby in the setting and observing and assessing their development. Also â€Å"helping to ensure that the care of the child meets with the parents' wishes. † Tassoni. et al 2007 page 219 This can benefit the babies in early years settings as the baby will be able to feel safe and secure. This means that they may be able to have a stable development.The key person has partnership with parents, which means that the parents can trust and respect them, which will ensure the care routine is planned effectively. They can also find out the individual needs of the baby, and meet the parent's needs. C1 -Discuss the importance of an environment that is safe, reassuring and stimulating It is important for the environment to be safe as it is a government and legal requirement. This is b ecause the Childcare Act 2006 affects the â€Å"adult to child ratio in rooms, the qualification levels of staff. † Tassoni. t al 2007 page 117 These are embedded in the Early Years Foundation Stage Curriculum. A safe environment is also necessary to prevent babies from having accidents and coming into harm. The parents will feel reassured if they feel their baby is in a safe environment which in turn the baby will continue attending the setting. It will also help the baby's development, as they will have the opportunities to learn. If not the baby may not develop skills such as fine and gross. A reassuring environment will make the baby feel secure and settled and as a result the babies self-esteem, self-worth and confidence will grow.The babies social and emotional health will develop higher and will reassure the parents. The child will form a great attachment with the key person which will help plan around the babies for activities so that their individual needs will have been met. Having a stimulating environment is important as the baby will be able to develop a variety of skills. They will be able to increase their sensory development by having activities such as treasury baskets and water play. They will feel motivated and will want to explore different outcomes from activities.A stimulating environment can be challenging which will encourage the baby's progression and learning and promote overall development. B1 – Evaluate the role of the practitioner in promoting an inclusive approach when working with babies and their families. When working with babies and their families, practitioners should promote an inclusive approach. â€Å"To include someone means making them feel a part if what is happening. † Tassoni et al 2007 page 8 Through this the practitioner will take into consideration the baby's individual needs, for example if the baby needs more time to settle in then the practitioner should accommodate this.It is important that the practitioner practices this way as the parents will feel valued and that the needs of their child are being met, it is the practitioners job to make sure the parents wishes are being met, for inclusive practice, the practitioner needs information on how to provide such an aspect, therefore, staff can go on training courses to refresh or retrain to provide an inclusive environment. It is essential for the practitioner to be up to date with current legislation to ake sure their practice is effective, for example a new child joins the setting with a disability, you could take a course on how to provide and include the child within the setting. The practitioner can also review their policies and procedures handbook and review the inclusive policy, this ensures that the practitioner can include all babies into activities no matter what gender, race, religion or disability the child has. The united Nations Convention on the Rights of the child has many articles on inclusivity in whic h the practitioner can revise: â€Å"Article 3: The right to be protected from all forms of discrimination. Tassoni et al 2007 page 115 The practitioner can also make sure there is an inclusive approach, by using a selection of resources which promote positive images and diversity. These can include posters of children sharing and books on diverse cultures and faiths. From this, the children will learn to respect other beliefs. They must also challenge and respond to poor practice. For instance, if the practitioner observes a child who is being left out or discriminated then they should intervene and stop it. This will make sure all children are included.However this may be difficult, if the practitioner does not see it, as it may happen when the children are playing quietly. By reflecting the practitioner can make sure that every child is included. This is because they can look back on an activity and see if anyone did not participate and why they didn't. However this may be hard for the practitioner if they do not know how to reflect. This means that they should go on training courses and find out new information from peer observations. The practitioner should also use positive language and not stereotype.This will make the children feel welcome and included. However this may be difficult if the practitioner does not have respect. It is so important, that the practitioner has partnership with parents. This is because they can find out the babies individual needs, which the practitioner can take into consideration when planning activities. A -Reflect on the influence of theoretical perspectives of development and attachment on current practice in settings working with babies under 1 year of age. There are many theorists that influence the current practice of working with abies and their attachments, for example Mary Ainsworth and John Bowlby who believed â€Å"Attachment is an emotional bond to another person. † www. psychology. about. com John Bowlby (1907-1990) believed that babies needed a strong, stable relationship with their primary carer, mainly being the mother. He also believed that the baby will find it hard later on in life to develop positive relationships with others if the baby doesn’t form a positive relationship with the primary carer. He found that babies cried and tried to escape when separated form the main carers, this was later branded and expanded by Ainsworth as ‘separation anxiety'.The child is distraught by the absence of their main carer and then calms and shows a more comfortable behaviour once the carer returns. This also shows the strength and type of attachment the baby shares with the primary carer. There are 3 types of attachment according to Bowlby: secure, resistant and avoident. These forms of attachment where found in Ainsworths study called the Strange Situation. This study observed the behaviour of babies between 12 and 18 months of stages where they where left alone with a stra nger or completely alone.Ainsworth found that the secure attachment type would be very distressed at the absence of the parent whereas the resistant attachment would show intense levels of distress and the avoident type would be fine, unfazed by the strangers attention or mothers absence. Ainsworth's theory influenced practice as practitioners now encourage parents to bring babies into the setting as soon as possible so that the baby can bond with its key worker and so that the baby will not be upset that its primary carer has left.The recognition of attachment has helped practice in many ways, such as the key worker being the second carer of the child while the parents work. The key worker will form a bond with the child and have better opportunities in finding out the child’s needs from the parents, some settings send the key worker out the the babies house before coming to the setting so that the child recognises the practitioner. The key worker, through developing this bo nd with baby and parents, can inform the staff of any new information that concerns the baby.This key worker gives the child a sense of security when around him/her as they have someone to go to in the future if they need anything. The key worker will bond with the child throughout the day through the routines of the setting, even nappy changing. There should also be another person that the child is quite attached to, but not the key worker. The baby will need they will need an additional person who they can feel comfortable with as they key worker may not work 5 days a week, in this case, there would be a second key worker or co-worker in which is a main part of the babies stay at nursery.The key worker is effective, because they empower the baby, as they have made a bond with them, which makes the child confident. Piaget 1896-1980 identified the different stages of development. He said that children moved through the sensory motor stage (0-2 years), pre operational stage (2-7 year s). He used the expression ‘Schema' to state a child’s thought process, † – Assimilation. – equilibrium. – disequilibrium. -accommodation. † Tassoni et al page 66 he felt that the schema would change as soon as contradicting information came in, for example: – † ‘Every day he lady in nursery is waiting for me in the room. – ‘I am in the shop but I see the lady from the nursery. what is she doing here because she is always at the nursery? ‘ – ‘the lady at nursery doesn’t stay there all the time. ‘ . † Tassoni et al page 66 During the sensory motor stage he said â€Å"The child develops physical schemas as he/she gains control of his/her movements. † Tassoni et al 2007 page 67 Throughout the pre-operational stage the â€Å"Children begin to use symbols to stand for things, for example a piece of dough represents a cake. † Tassoni et al 2007 page 67 Bruner a lso observes that the process of constructing knowledge of the world is not done in isolation but rather within a social context. † Meggit 2006 page 56 He argued that children should need things such as books and interest tables. He is known for ‘scaffolding' which is when adults help the children's development in a way that best suits the child. * Bruce. T, Meggit C (1999) Child care and education 2nd edition , London , Hodder and Stoughton * Meggit. C (2006) Child development , An illustrated guide , Heinemann, London * Tassoni. P (2007) Child care and education 4th edition , London, Heinemann