Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Nursing Theorist Essay

Formulate 3 nursing diagnoses using the Problem, Etiology, and Signs and Symptoms (PES) format and the taxonomy of NANDA. The diagnoses must be based on the case study, be appropriate, be prioritized, and be formatted correctly. For each nursing diagnosis, state 2 desired outcomes using NOC criteria. Desired outcomes must be patient-centered and measurable within an identified timeframe. For each outcome, state 2 nursing interventions using NIC criteria as well as 1 evaluation method. Interventions and the evaluation method must be appropriate to the desired outcomes. Provide rationale for each nursing diagnosis, and explain how PES, NANDA, NOC, and NIC apply to each diagnosis. Use a minimum of 3 peer-reviewed resources, and create an APA formatted reference page. Nursing Diagnosis 1: Urinary Retention R/T Anesthesia Nursing Interventions Desired Outcome 1 Desired Outcome 2 Nursing Intervention Visually inspect and palpate lower abdomen for distention (Mosby 2012). Patient’s abdominal girth will not increase and distention will decrease. Patient will remain free of abdominal pain r/t urinary retention. Nursing Intervention 2 Urinary Catheterization (Mosby 2012) Patient will empty bladder >30ml an hour Patient will demonstrate clean technique if performing self-catheterization. Evaluation method Measure input and output hourly to obtain accurate measurements. Make sure catheter is free of kinks to allow for proper drainage Rationale Keeping accurate records of I/O will ensure that the patient is evacuating properly. Ensuring patient is free of pain will promote less anxiety and keep vital signs within range. Educating patient on clean technique will promote an environment with less bacteria and keep risk of infection lower. Nursing Diagnosis 2: Risk for Infection/RT Urinary Catheter Desired Outcome 1 Desired Outcome 2 Nursing Intervention 1 Infection Control Patient remains free of infection, as evidenced by normal vital signs, and absence of purulent drainage from wounds, incisions, and tubes (Mosby 2012). Infection is recognized early to allow for prompt treatment (Mosby 2012). Nursing Intervention 2 Infection Protection Teach patient to wash hands often, especially after toileting, before meals, and before and after administering self-care (Mosby 2012). Teach patient importance of eating well balanced meals to promote healthy nutritional status. Evaluation method Evaluate patient perform self-care as to promote further education. Allow patient to verbalize and demonstrate understanding of proper nutrition and signs of infection. Rationale Patients with indwelling catheters need to be shown clean techniques when being discharged home. Educating patient on proper hand washing will promote clean environment and keep patients risk of infection lower. Educating patient on the early signs of infection will promote prompt medical intervention. Educating patient on proper nutrition and importance of well balanced meals will promote faster healing of incision and lower patients’ risk of infection. Nursing Diagnosis 3: Pain R/T Postoperative pain Desired Outcome 1 Desired Outcome 2 Nursing Intervention 1 Anticipate need for pain relief (Mosby 2012) Anticipating pain may result in medicating at a lower dose to keep patient comfortable. Maintaining a level of comfort where the patient is not begging for relief. Keeping vital signs stable while maintaining the patient comfortable. Nursing Intervention 2 Respond immediately to complaint of pain (Mosby 2011) Creates a trusting relationship with patient to ensure open lines of communication. Allows the patient to know that you are empathetic to their discomfort and that they are not alone. Evaluation method Evaluate scheduled times of medication administration. Round hourly on the patient as to reassure the patient that their needs will be met. Educate patient on medication administration time so they are not waiting until their pain is at a level 8 before they ask for relief. Evaluate the responses from the patient as to ensure that they are feeling comfortable with the care. Rationale Anticipating pain will allow the nurse to be on time for the patient in pain. Creating that trusting relationship with the patient will allow open lines of communication with the patient which will in turn allow for better care and outcome. Educating a patient on when to ask for medication will ensure that the patient never reaches a level of extreme pain. Treating your patient with compassion and empathy will allow for the patient to feel satisfied with the care they are receiving and create a trusting relationship. Reference Swearingen, P. L. (2012). All-in-one care planning resource: medical-surgical, pediatric, maternity, psychiatric nursing care plans (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Mosby. Gulanick, M. (2011). Nursing care plans: diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes (7th ed.). St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier Mosby. Doenges, M. E., & Moorhouse, M. F. (2002). Nursing care plans guidelines for individualizing patient care (6th ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Birdsong: Man and Stephen

Birdsong Essay Sebastian Faulks shows us many horrors of World War One by using language and structure of the novel. For example this shows the imagery of the horrors of war at the hospital when Stephen got injured and what happened with the boy. Faulks starts of with Stephen Wraysford and how he is coming back to life but with pain. His pain is nothing compared to the man next to him, the man apparently could â€Å"visualize the pain† also its says he could see it hovering over him this I think could relate to two thing either his pain or the mans spirit. Faulks describes the imagery for us how bad it is- â€Å"His body decomposing as he lay there, like those that hung on the wire going from red to black before they crumbled into the earth leaving only septic spores†- this shows us the horrors of what war does to people. Also Faulks uses this one man to describe the many other men that go through this in the war. Faulks uses descriptive language and we can visualise the boy when â€Å"His mouth was pulled open and his neck were stretched† and also â€Å"The skin of his cheeks and forehead was marked with bluish-violet patches. His eyes were oozing, as though with acute conjunctives†- shows us the graphic imagery of the boys eyes. Stephen tells us in about this boy, not knowing who he is and having no relation to Stephen at all this shows that Stephen has sympathy and thoughts about what these soldiers go through I think he is comparing on how lucky he is that his pain was very minor to the ones that other people s uffer. Stephen describes the boy’s body â€Å"The soft skin on the armpits and inner thighs was covered in huge, raw blisters†. Makes the reader visualise and actually see what Stephen is seeing. On page 187 it tells us that the boys voice came back to Stephen and â€Å"He begged to die†- this shows us the effect on how the damage and the pain that the boy actually must be going through. Faulks also shows us how hard the nurses job is and how her love can take over her job† Impotently, she held both her arms wide in a gesture of motherly love, as this would comfort him. † Stephen hopes that the boy would die soon, it is all so reverse he should be praying for him to live soon, but seeing and hearing the agony the boy is going through death would be more peaceful. On page 188 Faulks describes the boy the last time before he dies and we can see and imagine how his condition would be like for example-â€Å"He lay motion-less, trailing his raw skin. His infected lungs began to burble and froth with yellow fluid† Faulks shows Stephen with no emotion or sympathy for the boy no remorse â€Å"Stephen prayed that the boy would die† the nurse was the opposite to what he was like she was â€Å"pale, shocked, then burst into shuddering tears. She has sympathy for the boy and some feeling of lost. The next horror incident is when they go over the top to attack and Faulks uses emotional horror in the letters when they write back home. Faulks shows in Michael Wiers letter is formal like he says â€Å"Don’t worry about me, please. It is warm enough. †-shows he is covering up reality and not showing or telling the real truth because even if he does they would be able to understand it. And he says that â€Å"May your prayers be with the men who will go over the top†- shows respect and feelings to all the other soldiers. Stephens letter to Isabelle shows how lonely he is and what he has experienced

Monday, July 29, 2019

Expansion of Diageo Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Expansion of Diageo Paper - Essay Example Introduction Diageo is world’s top-notch quality drinks company. Through its universal vision as well as local promotional concentration, Diageo provides its customers an exceptional collection of beverage brands including the spirits, wine, and beer types. It was established during the year1997 after its merger with â€Å"Grand Metropolitan Public and Guinness†. Diageo operates in almost185 nations all over the globe and it is listed on both New York and London Stock Exchange. Diageo controls eight of the global top twenty high-quality spirits brand names, together with Smirnoff, the top brand â€Å"by volume† (Lopes, 2007, p. 76) as well as Johnnie Walker, the top brand â€Å"by value† (Lopes, 2007, p. 76). In beer, Diageo possesses the single international solid brand name, Guinness, along with a collection of bigger brand names traded mainly within Africa. Diageo’s wine brands are traded largely within North America along with Great Britain â₠¬Å"across a full range of price points† (Lopes, 2007, p. 77). Within the developed countries such as North America as well as Europe, Diageo has made sturdy ways to marketplace. Moreover, Diageo is the top-notch global spirits business within the developing nations such as â€Å"Africa, Latin America and Asia† (Lopes, 2007, p. 80). These swiftly expanding markets currently consist of more or less â€Å"one third of Diageo’s net sales† (Lopes, 2007, p. 76), rise from 25 percent during the year 2008. By means of persistent ‘organic’ development triggered by infrastructure ventures in addition to focused acquisitions, these markets are likely to chip in 65 percent of Diageo’s net sales by the year 2017. Diageo unites the advantages from universal level with local expertise in user inclinations as well as behaviours to bring outstanding advertising drives. For instance, the â€Å"Keep walking campaign on Johnnie Walker† (Diageo, 2006 , p. 192) has been broadcasting worldwide for more than ten years, supported by the global demand of individual growth. The advertising campaign is accurate to this vision even though the local innovative implementations seem changed universally. In the same way, user information updates Diageo’s improvement drives along with pipeline. The â€Å"premiumisation† (Diageo, 2006, p. 193) of scotch to create demand in clients of high-quality brand names along with the expansion of ‘ready to serve cocktails’ since ‘at-home’ usage raises have been mainly successful. Diageo is focused on creating a sustainable business along its value chain. The techniques with which Diageo supports a constructive part for alcohol within society; values the innate sources, societies as well as individuals it depends on; and supports traditions of excellent supremacy and moral values are all significant factors for growth. The business takes pride in the responsible wa y with which its brands are promoted and the constructive part that reasonable utilization of its brands has in the lives of numerous individuals. Diageo attempts to stay on the top of industry attempts to sponsor sensible drinking and do efforts with other shareholders to fight against wrong use of alcohol. From the time its start during the year

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Film Noir Scorsese and fhe Gangster Film Movie Review

Film Noir Scorsese and fhe Gangster Film - Movie Review Example The Maltese Falcon is considered to be one of the key films cementing the genre in the respect of the public, as well as establishing its archetypes. The end result has been such quintessential crime films as Scar Face, The God Father, The Departed and the most recent American Gangster. These films are notorious for depicting East inner city life, and no director has become more known for this than Martin Scorsese. No New York director has more authentically imbedded New York ideals into popular culture than Martin Scorsese. Classified as a contemporary auteur he has carved a niche as a New York Hollywood director. The auteur theory protests that the director's films reflect the particular director's personal creative vision, as though he or she were the sole author of the work. The French word for author, many film producers have notably been credited for having auteur like influences on film projects. It has also had a major impact on film criticism, since it was erected by film director and critic Francois Truffaut in 1954. This is partly why Auteurism is most immediately connected with French New Wave. This of course, was a connection made most commonly in the mid 1950's to 60's before American filmmakers embodied the theory. Today, no contemporary American director more deserves the title of auteur than Martin Scorsese. He has presented his genuine Italian New York culture in such an auth entic way that, for so long, it is unclear whether his work is a reflection of the city, or the city is a reflection of his work. Martin Scorsese is the perfect example of an auteur because he uses the same thematic consistencies throughout all of his work. These entail Catholicism, virgin/whore conflict, redemption, ethnic pride, and of course crime culture. On top of this, he supports all of his plots with very eclectic soundtracks. The cinematography he uses is very similar in all of his films. He utilizes the fluid motion of the camera with each shot, while making the mis-en-scene of each frame valuable to the plot of the story. He is also know for using some of the same actors in his films, specifically Robert Deniro, Joe Pesci, and Harvey Keitel. Of his large body of work, Mean Street symbolizes the blue print to the archetype that has become his unique style (Raymond, 2002). It was his first film and it contains all of the key characteristics with which he modeled his style. Scorsese has a visual style that relies on the city of New York. Mean Street embodies the culture that comes with this location. In the film, the audience is subjected to getting to know characters who spend their time womanizing, hustling, fighting, and drinking. Centered on the struggles of four men in their mid-20's and all residents of Little Italy, who are working their way up the rungs of gangster culture, some are loan sharks, and some are just plain hoods. Tony (David Proval) is a big friendly guy who runs the neighborhood bar; Michael (Richard Romanus) is a small-time loan shark who tends to rip off Brooklyn adolescents. Johnny Boy (Robert De Niro) is an irresponsible hood who borrows money from loan sharks that he never intends to pay back, and Charlie (Harvey Keitel) is the nephew of the mafia boss Giovani (Cesar Danova). Charlie's only aspiration is to run his own restaurant. Mean

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Engineering Products Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Engineering Products - Essay Example The theory developed by French and Raven (1958, p. 453) distinguished five bases of social power.   These are the reward power, the coercive power, the referent power, the legitimate power, and the expert power.   EP’s power policy is the combination of three bases, namely reward, coercive, and legitimate power.     The reward power is the leader’s influence on his followers exerted through the dispensation of valued rewards in return for compliance with instruction.   When EP established the pay plan and the new criteria for promotions, opening upward mobility to compliant managers, it was wielding the proverbial â€Å"carrot† and trying to court obedience to central policy.   Coercive power, on the other hand, is based on the administration of penalties or sanctions for non-compliance with instructions.   In EP, HQ wielded the â€Å"stick† in the form of sanctions and dismissals for managers who insisted on not abiding by HQ’s standa rdization policies.   HQ also introduced punishment in not allocating orders to plants perceived to be uncooperative with central authority. Finally, the exercise of legitimate (or position) power is based on the obligation of subordinates to accept instructions given by the leadership because of its position and title.   HQ used its legitimate power by employing control mechanisms such as: centralizing the decision-making functions on itself; changing the company’s structure to favour standardization; affording rewards and imposing punishments; training of personnel; and imposition of policies and rules (Hellriegel, D. and Slocum, J., 1978, p. 365 ). In EP, however, the changes in the organizational structure may be viewed as a benevolent attempt to gradually inculcate standardization through collaboration.   The manufacturing councils, the engineers’ International College, the internal consultants, and regular meetings of international HR specialists, were all meant to smooth out the transition from localized operations to a standardized system.  

Friday, July 26, 2019

The New Era (1920s) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

The New Era (1920s) - Essay Example Since, traders normally competed to give the best despite the absence of antitrust laws. This yielded to the creation of employment especially among those who belonged to the lower classes. Technological advancements especially in the second wave of Industrial Revolution, which encompassed of mass line production of the automobiles, also had a great impact on the economy’s prosperity. This knowhow transformed the natives’ lives besides making diverse activities run faster. For illustration, in transport sector where both the mobility of merchandise and people increased, hence cutting down production costs besides saving time. People working in various corporations were able to commute from their diverse states’ regions to towns with ease and fast. Because many workers owing to automobiles’ line mass production and low cost involved in the process, were able to afford cars. Moreover, automobile’s knowhow also boosted the agricultural sector, which su pported the state’s population. This was due to the increasing utilization of tractors and other machinery to heighten the farmers’ productivity thus enabling the population to eat right. Large and stable corporations owing to the low cost of production were then able to offer decent salaries and wages ($5 per day) to their staffs thus uplifting their lifestyles. Therefore, workers were able to afford numerous luxuries coupled with holiday vacations, which they had yearned for especially after WW1. This trend prompted other corporations to emulate the same and yielded to the heightening of the people’s living standards besides the state enjoying high revenue. Additionally, the emergence of electricity and its related products’ corporations also contributed to the state’s economic prosperity. This is because the erection of the first electric plant resulted to the easing of transportation besides its utilization in diverse areas like corporations, h omes and offices. For instance, the expansion and growth of mass entertainment was due to the emergence of electric power, which gave rise to night recreation and nightlife. This yielded to more revenue to the state besides numerous industries turning to a twenty-four hours production system. Owing to the pre-wired houses that were cheap then, electronic related companies also benefited from high demand for their appliances. Since, the availability of electricity in their houses prompted appliances like refrigerators, coolers, vacuums and other power-depended machines become useful. Eruption of numerous corporations also offered employment to numerous people like those dealt with steel, chemical, rubber, glass, and paint. Consequently, this stabilized the states’ economic base apart from those of its natives contrary to the prior years. Did affluence reach all classes? Despite the flourishing US economy in 1920s, not all classes enjoyed its benefits owing to racial discrimina tion, which took the center stage. There was unequal income increment rates where the Blacks’ salaries were the lowest compared to their whites’ counterparts (though increasing at a low rate). Racism also characterized job posts where allocation despite US boasting of economic prosperity, some races could not assume top positions in diverse corporations. As a result, this led to the agitation of civil rights especially when the

Bullying in the Workplace Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Bullying in the Workplace - Assignment Example From this paper it is clear that organizational justice laws clearly indicate the space that an employer should give an employee and highly discourage any act that may be considered as bullying. Any act that is aimed at hurting the employee directly or indirectly and hence lead to reduced work should be reported and appropriate steps taken against the employer. In our case Kara should have reported that to the appropriate discipline for it to stop. This study highlights that wWhere workplace bullying can be taken as just a norm or a light act that will have no deep effects on the employee, at extreme cases one can experience the following;- high blood pressure, heart attack, overwhelming anxiety and panic attack, constant loss of memory and concentration, tension and constant headaches, mood swings and loss of appetite. This can highly reduce your motivation at the workplace and it is at such times that one can decide to take a retaliatory step to end it all. This can be in different forms where one can decide to quit the job and work where you will be okay working. Other people may decide to handle it in a different way where they can report the employer for the indecent approaches and intimidation.  The first factor that leads to workplace bullying is job insecurity. Team Field claims that a weak manager who is afraid of the employees will always try to impact actions that intimidate the employees. This can be curbed by cre ating good cohesion in the workplace and reducing the tension. This will stop the efforts of suppression by the boss. Female employees are 70% more often bullied than their male experts. This is mainly because of their soft nature. They should address the situation early as it could even lead to sexual harassment as it has been witnessed in some situations.  

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Pollution in the environment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Pollution in the environment - Essay Example Holdgate also asserts that, â€Å"the significance of pollution is related to its effects on a range of targets or receptors including man and the resources and the ecological systems on which he depends† (17). As human beings have flourished in all the fields of science such as medicine, technology, nuclear bombs etc. the types of pollutants have also become very diverse beginning from vehicle smoke to radioactive chemicals and extremely dangerous ultra-violet rays. Hence it can be inferred that the damage is now out of control because every aspect of human life that is associated with comfort and health directly or indirectly discharges some form of pollutant and helps in further destroying the environment. 1.1. Types of pollution Any type of component, rays or object that effects the environment is some way can be perceived as a pollutant as it is, â€Å"any substance introduced into the environment that adversely affects the usefulness of a resource† (Hill 8). Conse quently pollution can be divided into many sub-divisions such as air pollution, noise pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, light pollution etc. Although the causes for all these types of pollutions are self-explanatory yet it is interesting to observe the manner in which one component helps in spreading so many types of pollutions all at once. For example radioactive rays and chemicals simultaneously hold the power of polluting the natural resources like soil, water, plants and air. Then again noise, smoke and light can be dangerous for the atmosphere as well as the ozone layer which is protecting us from highly radioactive ultraviolet rays of the sun. Even the cutting down of trees and forests can also be perceived as a form of pollution spread because less tress mean less greenery and excessive spread of pollution as plants and trees fight against pollution by absorbing many harmful gases that are present or discharged in the atmosphere. Hence it can be understood that alth ough urbanization and modern advancements in the fields of science and technology have its perks yet it has also resulted in stealing the peace, quiet and beauty of nature leaving man in a figurative desert of unhealthy surroundings where everything is either stale or dull devoid of freshness and life. Although all ecosystems of planet earth are very important yet it should be realized that it is impossible for human beings to survive without water and some of recent incidents of spilling of highly dangerous substances in different seas and oceans show that human beings are not understanding the extent of damage that is going to be caused and is being caused because of their carelessness. Moreover this issue requires some careful planning and plotting to remedy the situation otherwise there is a possibility that human beings will be facing water shortage which will ultimately lead to vanishing of water from planet earth which in other words means death. 2. Water Pollution Water poll ution can be defined as, "any impairment of the composition or state of water resulting directly or indirectly from human agency, in particular to the detriment of: its

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

College Is Important Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

College Is Important - Essay Example However, it is common knowledge that good educational institutions can contribute a lot towards the overall development of a student’s personality. A classroom very often functions as a cross section of the society to which students have to venture out after their studies. Those students who maintain good communication and inter-personal skills will naturally be better equipped to face the challenges in life gracefully. At the same time, a group environment provides opportunities for timid and uncommunicative students to learn socially desirable behavior pattern in a friendly environment. Instead of typecasting students into various categories, good colleges give equal opportunity for everyone to grow, even as they retain the essence of their inner personality. The challenges one has to meet in a college are comparable to those in real life. One gets enough opportunities to work under pressure and meet deadlines. Peer pressure very often brings the best out of many students. Good teachers guide them through the difficult phases in their learning process, and some teachers even go out of their way to help out students in major crises of life. One learns in colleges to interact diplomatically with people from all spheres of life. The demand to work systematically helps students immensely in their life outside college as well. The sense of discipline in classrooms based on a democratic spirit helps students act properly in situations of conflict. Life in college offers an opportunity to explore one’s socializing skills and also to participate in group sports. The best thing about studying in a big campus is the free access to gym, swimming pool and sports stadium. One gets to make use of such facilities which are otherwise very difficult to afford in life. Those who are inclined to make use of these facilities get an opportunity to combine their studies

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

The Count Down to Zero Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The Count Down to Zero - Assignment Example The Count Down to Zero films by Lucy Walker illustrates how the production of the nuclear has become a global threat due to its growth in unexpected ways. Further, the discussion has been held by some leading political leaders including Tony Blair, Jimmy Carter and Plame Wilson on the elimination of nuclear weapons due to their mass killings and long lasting effect caused when nuclear weapons are used in war. Some of the arguments include, what do you hope the film will accomplish? The nuclear weapons generally need to be eliminated internationally and the film takes part in making efforts before the entire citizens of the world suffer a nuclear catastrophe (Walker Web). Through this, it is clear that the film is after saving the world, not for entertainment purposes. Did the President Obama's speech to the UN Security Council Affect the direction of the film? Walker asserts that he was greatly impressed by the president spoke in regards to the use of nuclear weapons in war. The policy of President Obama has been consistent and brilliant. Do the film of countdown call for some action? The film of countdown greatly calls for action in eliminating the use of nuclear weapons in war. The film tries to alerts people from different corners of the world to know the exact truth of using nuclear weapons on war (Walker Web). The film provides ideas of weapon inspection treaties and involving some tough issues in investigating the presence of nuclear weapons in Israel, Pakistan, and Iran.

Monday, July 22, 2019

How to Vote in an Automated Election Essay Example for Free

How to Vote in an Automated Election Essay The Philippines is a developing country. One of the proofs of these developments is the transformation from manual to automated election. New and old voters might have a little information or even nothing at all about this high technology used for the elections. Hopefully, this guide on how to vote in an automated election will make the procedure less confusing for the voters. Synchronized National and Local Elections will be in May 13, 2013 as per RA 7166 Sec. 2 and RA 10153. STEP 1: Go to the designated precinct on May 13 The voter must first find his/her name on the PCVL (Posted Computerized Voters List) posted near the door to determine his/her precinct number and sequence number. The voter must bring a voter’s ID or any valid ID along with the registration stub. Identity of the voter must then be verified by the Bureau of Election Inspector (BEI). STEP 2: How to use the ballot Listen carefully to the instructions of the BEI Chairman on how to properly fill up the ballot. Secrecy folder and a marking pen will be given by the Comelec. Only one ballot will be provided per voter. See to it that the ballot is clean. The oval beside the name of the chosen candidate must be completely shaded. STEP 3: Feed the ballot to the PCOS PCOS stands for Precinct Count Optical Scan machine. The voter will be the one to feed the ballot to the machine. Wait for confirmation or until the ballot is dropped into the semi-transparent box of the machine. If rejected, ask for the assistance of the BEI. The voter should return the secrecy folder and marking pen to the assigned person in the precinct. STEP 4: Go to the BEI for indelible inking The voter will then proceed to the BEI for the putting of indelible ink at the base of the right forefinger nail, then affix thumb mark in the space in the Election Day Computerized Voters List (EDCVL). REFERENCES: Commission on Election Dado, Lauren â€Å"How to Vote in an Automated Election.† Philippine Online Chronicles Esem05 â€Å"Manual Election or Automated Election.† 10 2012. 10 2012

History of the American Constitution

History of the American Constitution Confederation and Constitution As depression struck the new nation in the mid-1780s, new questions arose about the nature of American democracy. Many conservatives believed that the answer lay in a stronger national government.Most radicals believed it was up to the states to relieve the financial burden of the people. These sentiments fostered a movement for a new constitution. Political differences soon stimulated the creation of political parties. Compare and contrast the Articles of Confederation with the new Constitution of 1787. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles vis-à  -vis the Constitution? Give specific instances that demonstrate the weakness of the Articles (such asthe Western problem). Then analyze the drafting of the Constitution, using specific details to show how the various states (slave vs. free, east vs. west) compromised in order to effectively draft a constitution.Pay particular attention to Roger Sherman’s plan,the Great Compromise, which broke a stalemate that could have been fatal to the development of the new Constitution. Finally, compare and contrast the debate over ratification between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists. Make sure you cite specific examples from the Federalist Papers to support the Federalist position and contrast it with leading proponents of the opposition (such asJohn Hancock). Analyze how the debate over a bill of rights illustrates the differences between the two parties. Evaluate the relative success of the Bill of Rights in achieving an effective balance between national and states’ interests. Revolution: From Rebellion to Jeffersonian Democracy A Different Kind of Revolution | From Confederation to Constitution | Federalist Timeline The end of the American Revolution was the beginning of the formation of a new republic. But the transition was not easy, as the Articles of Confederation that first bound the thirteen colonies proved too weak to confront the problems that faced the new nation. The transition from the Articles of Confederation to the Constitution to Jeffersonian Democracy is the focus of this week’s work. A Different Kind of Revolution Back to Top The American Revolution has spawned a vast amount of literature, as it created the first new nation-state of the modern era. Yet, compared with the French and Russian Revolutions that followed, it was a â€Å"conservative† revolution. It did not radically change the colonial society that existed before. From 1763 to 1776, the colonists argued that they were fighting for the rights of â€Å"Englishmen.† But some historians maintain that the revolution was truly radical, and point to the disestablishment of state religions immediately after the war. But the truth is that several states had already disestablished their state religions before the outbreak of war. Other historians point to the democratic state legislatures created after the war. But again, only Pennsylvania and Rhode Island established truly radical state governments with a unicameral legislature. The truth is that the basic elements of capitalism, money, and slavery remained after the revolution. Yet the founding fathers did believe that they were creating something new. The great seal proclaims, a â€Å"novus ordo seculorum† (a new world order). And world opinion abroad concurred with this opinion. One French observer complained of America’s experiment with â€Å"liberty and justice for all.† But the new nation lacked the prerequisites of nationhood: mythical origins, ancient folklore, one church, and common ethnic roots. In 1782, J. Hector St. John de Crà ¨vecÅ“ur published Letters from an American Farmer. He described Americans as a new people, dedicated to the principles of equal opportunity and self-determination. His work provided an understanding of the New World that helped create an American identity in the minds of Europeans. Crà ¨vecÅ“ur wrote, â€Å"What then is the American, this new man?He is an American, who, leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced†¦Here individuals of all races are melted into a new race of man, whose labors and posterity will one day cause great changes in the world.† Men like Crà ¨vecÅ“ur and later Alexis de Tocqueville believed that Americans were truly different because they were tied together by the ideals of the Enlightenment—liberty, individuality, and democracy. The American identity took on the character of a civic religion. George Washington metamorphosed into something more than human. His birthday was made a national holiday in 1799 and Mason Adams carried this sanctification to an extreme with his story of the cherry tree. July 4th became â€Å"the† national holiday and the Declaration of Independence became a sacred text. It was only after the Civil War that due emphasis was placed on the Constitution. The national motto, e pluribus unum—from many one—expressed the new American ideal. The founding fathers did see something new in America, but, it was more prescriptive than descriptive. Freedom for many was still an illusion. From Confederation to Constitution Back to Top After the Revolutionary War, the patriots feared giving the new American government too much power. Early state governments argued over how much power to give the people. Some, like Thomas Paine, sought changes that would promote democracy; others like Alexander Hamilton feared giving too much power to the common man. Most states like Massachusetts and New York chose to create a conservative state constitution, with a bicameral legislature. But patriots continued to argue over who should be given the right to vote, with men like John Adams warning that allowing the poor to vote would â€Å"confound and destroy all distinctions, and prostrate all ranks to the common level.† Over time, the House of Representatives—the most democratic of all institutions—gained power at the expense of the Senate, the more conservative branch of government. In 1777, the Continental Congress drafted the Articles of Confederation. Drafted under the leadership of John Dickenson of Pennsylvania, the Articles were a loose confederation of thirteen states with very little power given to the federal government. The new federal government consisted of a congress of delegates chosen by state legislatures rather than by voters. It had no President or executive branch. The Articles granted only limited powers to Congress—to declare and conduct war and to regulate foreign affairs. Amending articles was almost impossible, as all thirteen states had to agree. One of the most important accomplishments of the Congress was the creation of the Northwest Territory, a vast area of land west of Pennsylvania and north of the Ohio River. The Land Ordinance of 1785 designed a system for distributing the land to settlers and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 provided a government for the western territories. Eventually, the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinoi s, Michigan, and Wisconsin would be carved out of this region. But the new Congress was too weak to deal with threats from Spain and Britain. Great Britain, who at first tried to cultivate good will with the new nation, returned to a policy of mercantilism, or trade in its own best interest. They prohibited American ships—in particular those from Massachusetts—to trade with the British West Indies. It soon became clear that the Articles themselves were part of the problem. Under the Articles, the federal Congress had no power to deal with the growing national debt. When the Congress tried to seek an amendment to levy a tax on imported goods, the amendment failed for lack of one vote. Meanwhile, with a slowdown in trade, more and more farmers went into debt. In 1787, Daniel Shays, a veteran of the Revolutionary War, led about 1,000 farmers in rebellion against the Massachusetts courts. While the rebellion quickly died out, it pointed to the weakness of the federal government in dealing with the growing national debt. The stage was s et for the Constitutional Convention of that same year. Constitutional Convention Now join in the discussions as a reporter at the Constitutional Convention of 1787. You are encouraged to take notes for your newspaper article at the end of this role-play. Constitutional Convention Federalist Timeline Back to Top The following timeline traces the evolution of the federal government from the Articles of Confederation to Jeffersonian Democracy. The Articles of Confederation proved too weak for the fledgling republic and so a new Constitution emerged in 1787. This gave rise to the two-party system, with men like Thomas Jefferson and James Madison leading the Democratic Republicans and George Washington and Alexander Hamilton remaining Federalists. With the election of Thomas Jefferson as President in 1799, American democracy took on a new, more populist flavor. This paper must be four to five double-spaced pages in length (not including the References page) and utilize no less thanfour academic quality sources.Margins should be no more thanone inch (right and left) and the essay should be composed in an appropriate font and size. Sources must be documented and cited using APA format. History of the American Constitution History of the American Constitution Michael Dean Jalal Nejad, Ph.D. When the United States won freedom from Great Britain after the American Revolution they adopted the Articles of Confederation. Twenty-one years the United States was ruled by the Articles until they adopted the U.S. Constitution in 1787. This made it so that the nation was rules by a sovereign national government, but also the states were sovereign as well. Some advantages that this system has over a strong national government in a highly centralized system is that it encourages competition between the states, as well as it gives sovereignty to the states to run themselves how they best see fit. Some disadvantages of the current system in the United States are that due to federal funding of state budgets if the role of national government was more limited it would have a drastic economic effect on the state. Also due to the aggressive nature of many federal programs the states cannot effectively run these programs themselves and depend on federal support. During the Articles of Confederation the national government was incredibly weak in power, this lack of national power left the nation not running as a whole unit but rather the states as separate organisms. After twenty-one years the United States rewrote their laws, and called it the U.S. Constitution. Under this set of laws the national government was sovereign but still getting its power from the people, and the states were sovereign as well and got their power from the people. Under the U.S. Constitution many different forms of federalism came and went, evolving to where the country is today, which is a marble-cake system of federalism. Marble-cake federalism is the cooperation between different levels of government, whether national, state, or local (Champagne Harpham 43). An advantage this system of government has over a strong national government in a highly centralized system is that it inspires competition amongst the states. Every state has policy issues but most states try to fix that problem their own way. If a state is successful in correcting the issue, then the policy would adjusted nationally to replicate what the state did in order to fix the problem. Another advantage of this system is that it gives states freedom to govern how they best see fit. This goes from gun control laws, traffic violations, and even the death penalty. Disadvantages to the current system in place would be that due to funding from the national government to states budgets if it were to be cut off or diminished, it would have a very profound effect on the economy of the state. This means that too much reliance on national government when it comes to money is a bad thing because some states rely very heavily on the federal government to help them balance their budget. Another disadvantage would be the reliance on federal support for different programs throughout the states, without their support many of these programs would suffer heavily or even fail completely. Due to this crutch that the states have they cannot fully be sovereign. To conclude, this country has gone through many different types of federalism from complete separation of power between the different levels of government to where the country is now which is call marble-cake federalism. There are both advantages and disadvantages that this system has over a strong national government in a highly centralized system. Some advantages would be that it invokes creativity and competition throughout the states (Champagne Harpham 44), as well as giving the states freedom to govern how they see fit. Some disadvantages would be that the states rely too heavily on federal government for funding, as well as leaning too much on the national government when it comes to implementing and maintaining different programs. Works Cited Champagne, Anthony, and Edward J. Harpham. Governing Texas:. New York: W.W. Norton Company, 2013. Print.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

England: A Christian Country

England: A Christian Country Christianity as a religion is one that was first brought to the British Isles around 1st century AD, this was during the Roman Empire. Britain had its own set of religious icons; Pagan gods of the earth and Roman gods of the sky. It was into this setting that Christianity arrived, and It is thought to have started in England before moving to Ireland, Scotland, and then into other British Isles. This evangelization was carried out mostly by the Gregorian Missionaries; this eventually led to the beginning of the Church of England. The Church of England which is the foremost form of Christianity in England has it beginnings towards the end of the 6th century, during the time of the Anglo-Saxons. The Church of England highlights continuity through apostolic succession and traditionally looks to these early events for its origins rather than to changes brought about by the English reformation. Events such as Henry VIIIs schism with the Roman Catholic Church or the excommunication of Elizabeth I or the wider Reformation in mainland Europe are all events that contributed to the development of the Church of England as it is now established, but are regarded as a continuation of the arrival of the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church to the British Isles.  [1]   Wikipedia articles on the origins of the Church of England. However, as the years progressed the notion was formed that the Church was founded by God and the ruling monarch was automatically the Head of the Church, appointed also by God. Christianity rose from a small religion to being the national religion, with the association of Church to Monarchy. This therefore meant that all proceedings within the Kingdom were governed by God. Christianity was a part of the people and the people were conditioned into the lifestyle of being Christians. Children were being baptized, taught in the faith as part of daily living as well as in school curriculum. Births, Marriages and Deaths/Funerals were conducted and registered by the Clergy. Therefore during this period, England was predominantly a Christian nation. It is worth mentioning that there was also paganism in England, however as Christianity grew paganism reduced. The discussion in this essay however, is not about the origins of Christianity nor is it about the origins of the Church of England. Some of the points discussed below are from personal findings, while other points are secondary research. With the herald of a more accommodating society, more religions are being rooted in the British society. This is also because of the increase in the ethnic groups in England, who have various religions, and with the world of political correctness; other religions are blooming and thriving as well. Unfortunately, the percentage of English people of Christian origins are dwindling, leaving generations after them to being less keen about religion altogether. Christianity is slowly diminishing because we are now in a more secular society. There are less faith schools, and the percentage of Church goers has reduced over the last couple of decades. According to personal findings, Church buildings are been sold or remodelled to other functionalities. In current times, even though England is officially a Christian country, there are less than 40% of the people who are Christians and even few much less of them are a part of the Church of England. The remaining population are either Atheists or of a different religion. Findings have proved that the Church today has lost about 1 in 10 members are from 1996 to present day, at this rate the church will find it hard to survive in the next 50 years. There is now a massive fall in registered Births, Marriages and Deaths in the Church. The church today is been grounded by challenges from a changing society, where the Christian institution is on a decline as well as challenges from a rise in cultural and religious diversification. BBC sources record that the United Kingdom, which England is a part of is ethnically diverse, partly as a legacy of empire. Lately, the country has been struggling with issues revolving around multiculturalism, immigration and national identity. This is against a background concerns about terrorism and political and religious radicalismà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ã‚  [2]   In conclusion, we can accept that England is still officially a Christian country due to the fact that the Anglican Church is rooted in England and that the monarchy is associated with the Church of England, however it will be hard for Christianity to hold its footing if the Church does not rise up and take a stand. 1. 2 . 3.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Teaching Students How to Write Essay -- English Writing Teacher Studen

Experience shapes us, randomness shapes us, the stars and weather, our own accommodations and rebellions, above all, the social order around us. Adrienne Rich, "Of a Women Born" My four-year old daughter now has the yearning to learn how to write. She scribbles illegible swirls, which she says is her story about a princess. She prints her name "Olivia" on books, magazines, and on her drawings. When she has a pen or crayon in hand she has an immediate urgency to write her name and where ever there is a flat surface she prints her name incorrectly. When I tell her there are not two "I"s in her name and attempt to show her the correct spelling, she throws her crayon in the air. What is essential and what I must remind myself is that at the moment, in her world, the spelling of her name is Oliia. When I hover over her shoulder as she scribbles, she stops writing. She feels inhibited, so now I resist teaching her writing. This is how I imagine many teachers feel when faced with a pile of essays written by high school students, which are streamed with grammatical errors and incoherent sentences. They feel apathy, as do many students, about writing. After reading t exts required for our composition theory class, I sympathize with students', teachers' and my daughter's frustration. Time is spent on error identification and what constitutes a finished piece, rather than on the potential of a piece of writing and the process of completing that piece. Time is not spent on how to create a "good" piece, or as Donald Murray describes, "rehearsal, drafting, revision and connecting." In a sense I could say Olivia is rehearsing the spelling of her name. It is no wonder she is throwing her crayon in the air, because I am correcting her versus ... for Conflict." Contending with Words. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 1991. 105-124. Kirsch, Jesa E. Ritcie, Joy S, "Beyond the Personal: Theorizing a Politics of Location in Composition Research." College Compositon and Communciation 46 (Feb. 1995):7-19. Murray, Donald M. A writer teaches writing. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1968. Rich, Adrienne. Of Woman Born. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.1986. Royster, Jacqueline Jones. "When the First Voice You Hear Is Not Your Own." College Composition and Communication 47.1(Feb.1996): 29-40. Welch, Nancy, "Revising a Writer's Identity:Reading and "Re-Modeling" in a Composition Classroom." College Composition and Communication. 47(Feb 1996):41-27. Zawacki, Terry Myers. "Recomposing as a Woman-An Essay in Different Voices." College Composition and Comunication 43(Feb.1992):32-38.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Raves And Drugs Essay -- essays research papers

Generally people associate raves(Underground Techno parties) with designer drugs like Ecstasy(MDMA), Speed(amphetamine) and other acids like LSD. These drugs are called the Techno Drugs for that reason and most of the time have uplifting and sensatory effects. To understand more clearly the relationship between the raves and these drugs, we first have to understand the philosophy behind the Techno era, and a little about the music. â€Å"Techno, can lift the spirit and become a new world of freedom and peace"(D'Vox Magazine The first electronic music Magazine). Most raves are covered with propaganda about freedom, peace, spirituality and the like. It is no surprise why teens use these specific drugs at raves. "The effects of E, are like a journey to another world, a world of happiness, love and euphoria" (Ecstasy and Mental Health: Nerves or neurosis by Dr. Karl Jansen) These ravers, have many reasons to take E, for example " The music lends itself to the intake of drugs, drugs are common in youth culture, teens need energy to dance all night, the rave scene is bombarded with all kinds of E" (Drug Information Database, "The media has given E and the rave scene a bad reputation, since 30 years ago music has been greatly united with drugs. For example Weed and Rock in the 60's and acid in the 70's." (E for Ecstasy by Nicolas Saunders, ch.1) Ecstasy is just a hard and dangerous as weed, "a drug that 1 out of every 3 highschool students in the American population have had experiences with." (Drug Information Database, "Why is E judged so harshly when the ecstasy related deaths can not compare with those related with legal drugs just like tabacco and alcohol." (E for Ecstasy by Nicolas Saunders, ch.2) Of course the media has a lot to do with it, the media takes all the negative effects and doesn't include the positive ones. " ; 29 volunteers where asked to assist Dr. Green, prominent doctor in charge of studies for the BMJ (British Medical Journal), in a study of the effects of E." (Readers Digest article by Russell Twisk editor-in-chief) "Out of those 29 volunteers they all experienced, unpleasant experiences such as nausea, sweating and stiffing" (Readers Digest by Russell Twisk). " Although the voluntee... ... is so complex as to completely determine if E has affected the toxicity in long term users, I believe that it does decrease the level of serotonin in the brain, without destroying serotorgenic axons." (Ecstasy: a human neurotoxin? Interview with Dr. O'callaghan). There have been many studies, some of them trying to prove that E is in fact a neurotoxin and those trying to prove it's not, up to now both sides cannot come up with solid answers to the subject. It is hard to say that all ravers are on E, but certain the majority of them are. " If a raver is not E at a rave, Techno has the same properties (although much less stronger) as some of those drugs. Techno is played incredibly loud and raves have incredible lights that cause euphoria in the most sober of minds". (Techno & Ecstasy: Music and Drugs in the year 2000, Times Magazine by Nicolas Saunders) Although Ecstasy is illegal in every country in the world, I think it will be impossible to stop ravers and t he production of E in underground labs. Since Techno is becoming more popular around teenagers, therefore E is also becoming more and more popular around the clubbing and raving scenes. Word Count: 1337

Cell Phones :: essays research papers

Digital cell phone from Nokia Millions of people in the United States and around the world use cellular phones. They are such great gadgets -- with a cell phone, you can talk to anyone on the planet from just about anywhere! These days, cell phones provide an incredible array of functions, and new ones are being added at a breakneck pace. Depending on the cell-phone model, you can: Store contact information Make task or to-do lists Keep track of appointments and set reminders Use the built-in calculator for simple math Send or receive e-mail Get information (news, entertainment, stock quotes) from the Internet Play simple games Integrate other devices such as PDAs, MP3 players and GPS receivers But have you ever wondered how a cell phone works? What makes it different from a regular phone? What do all those confusing terms like PCS, GSM, CDMA and TDMA mean? In this article, we will discuss the technology behind cell phones so that you can see how amazing they really are. If you are thinking about buying a cell phone, be sure to check out How Buying a Cell Phone Works to learn about everything you should know before making a purchase. Let's start with the basics: In essence, a cell phone is a radio. One of the most interesting things about a cell phone is that it is actually a radio -- an extremely sophisticated radio, but a radio nonetheless. The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, and wireless communication can trace its roots to the invention of the radio by Nikolai Tesla in the 1880s (formally presented in 1894 by a young Italian named Guglielmo Marconi). It was only natural that these two great technologies would eventually be combined! In the dark ages before cell phones, people who really needed mobile-communications ability installed radio telephones in their cars. In the radio-telephone system, there was one central antenna tower per city, and perhaps 25 channels available on that tower. This central antenna meant that the phone in your car needed a powerful transmitter -- big enough to transmit 40 or 50 miles (about 70 km). It also meant that not many people could use radio telephones -- there just were not enough channels. The genius of the cellular system is the division of a city into small cells. This allows extensive frequency reuse across a city, so that millions of people can use cell phones simultaneously.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

The medicine world has been the very first of those which has entered this technological arena

With the advent of technological advancement, it is true that man is pushing off his limits in a way that he unlocks the mysteries in his world and the environment around him.But along side this furtherance in almost every sector of the society, various maladies press on. And because man is by nature inquisitive and discontented of the things laid before him, and plus the fact that he just can’t withstand the consequences of his acts, that may lead him to suffering, he would continue to discover things even beyond his will.The medicine world has been the very first of those which has entered this technological arena thus setting its goals towards impalpable possibilities in medicine. And when I’m talking of the possibilities and technology, computer chips will be at its own best to draw attention from the most curious human minds.These chips are more properly called integrated circuits, or IC’s. They are electronic devices that contain transistors and other compo nents that are made of semiconductor materials, like silicon.(, 2008) Over the last four decades, computer chips have found their way into virtually every electronic device in the world.During that time they have become smaller, cheaper and more powerful, that it even penetrated to the medicine society.   Gene Chip, Biochip, DNA chip and a lot more can make a way into almost anything tangible.Biochips are among the most important instruments used in the miniaturization and automation of biology. But the most grand among the nowadays is the DNA chip which is DNA chips. They are likely to serve the most varied of purposes ranging from basic research in biology through diagnosis of disease to water ecology.(,2003).Like the saying that goes, â€Å"necessity is the mother of invention†, this only implies that since we have a demand over something, then we create something prior to our demand.   But ever ything is interconnected to one another.   We may never know the limitations of these things unless a certain consequence.We may opt to open our mind to a possibility that since the world is so sick, many people die of the revenge of the Mother Earth, what will possibly happen to us who most of the time nowadays are relying on and holding on to the small but terrible capacity of computer chips? Will the world stop?Will we just remain dumb and wait for the end? What will really possibly happen to the entire human race? Simple, we may opt to go back to normal, most simple way of living and curing ourselves. We may not be able to diagnose ailments, keep track of the progress of an ailing patient, inventions will be at zero, and worst, since computer chips are connected to the world in which we live, the possibility of worsening the condition of the ills will be unimaginable.Everything that revolves around computer chips will be totally limp in such a way that the uncomplicated situat ions of those who rely mainly on them will find their way to a very conventional way of living.These are but anticipations of the possible of end of something that has started we got used to.   Nevertheless, we have been given such a powerful mind that can outdo things that may have affected us. We can see that movies featuring the use of these highly powerful and technological things are not just simple result of a creative mind. But of course, we have to think again. With everything around us, with the long way we have paved and with the future waving at us, can we still afford to go back?Works CitedWhat is a Computer Chip?, Retrieved May 7, 2008, from DNA-based medicine . creating value for patients, Retrieved May 7, 2008 from,2003  

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Analysis of Listener’s Wooden Heart

He says he built his own heart let on of wood, and placed it inside himself (the iron ship), as he sails by means of the struggles in biography (blood red seals and dumbfounds his place in demeanor. Hes non letting the struggles in life (waves) obliterate his hopes and dreams. He says he believes in both(prenominal) anchors and saviors a depict apart, so Im assume they are synonymous. His life is falling apart, only(prenominal) if he still believes in whatsoever anchor is in his life, while hes sinking. When he says he is pulling the stinky wood out of his heart, he manner hes letting go of the emotional baggage in his heart, so he potentiometer pursue his reams. We are all make out of shipwrecks, every single alongside washed and bound like bend teeth on these rocky shores That railroad line is saying that we are all the someone we are today because of our mis considers, and were all tho making it through life by ourselves. At this point in the poem, he starts referring to a community making it through together, rather than sailing through life Just by himself. The line we only have what we remember, that reduplicates several generation throughout the poem, states that if we didnt have what we remember, we would Just repeat the mistakes that we Dade in our past. L am the only living son of a charwoman and man who barely made It. this line is basically repeating the very archetypical line of the poem Were all innate(p) to broken people on their around honest day of living. If we hold on tight well hold distri furtherively some other together, and not Just some fools bucket along to die in our sleep they subscribe to go through this together, because they cant do this alone. in all these machines will rust I promise, but well still be electric, shocking each other back to life. Waves can take down a ship, but urine cant destroy electricity. Their ship may sink, but if theyre electric, they can live through the storm. Because our church service is made out of shipwrecks, from every take away these rocks have claimed. A church is a congregation. A place where you can find other people to hold on to, and do life with.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Law of Tort

Law of Tort

4. 0 INTRODUCTION Occupiers liability generally refers to the duty owed by land owners to those who come onto their land. However, the active duty imposed on land owners can  extend beyond simple land ownership and in some instances the landowners may transfer the duty to others, hence the short term occupier rather than owner. The term occupier itself is misleading since physical occupation is not necessary for liability  to arise.The law doesnt remedy all wrongs.Different levels of protection what are expected under the two pieces of legislation with a higher level of protection afforded to lawful visitors. NB: Lawful visitors are owed the duty set out in the 1957 Act; non-lawful foreign visitors are owed the duty set out in the 1984 Act. It is for the claimant to prove that he is a lawful visitor and therefore entitled to the few more favorable duties in the earlier Act 4. 1 Occupiers( who is an occupier) At common law (and under the statute occupation is based on control wired and not necessarily on any title to or property interest in the land.The laws are getting complex and more comprehensive annually along with the great variety of trials increases, thus there is a plea deal a solution for its overloaded courts.

The stairs were steep and narrow. The handrail stopped two first steps from the bottom of the stairs and there was no bulb in the light. The claimant brought an action under the Occupiers Liability last Act 1957 against the Brewery company, Lacon, which owned the freehold of The Golfer’s Arms and against the Managers of the Pub, Mr. & Mrs.The law doesnt condemn.Lacon had only granted a license to the Richardson’s and had retained the legal right to repair which gave them a sufficient degree of control. There is no requirement of physical occupation. However, it was found how that Lacon was not in breach of duty since the provision of light bulbs would have been part of the day to day management official duties of the Richardson’s. Since the Richardson’s were not party to the appeal the claimant’s action failed.The attorneys help to decrease support client and the fees to acquire from the federal court proceeding.

He may share the control with others. Two or more may be â€Å"occupiers â€Å".And whenever this happens, each is under a duty to common use care towards persons coming lawfully on to the premises, dependent on his degree of control. If each fails in his duty, each is liable to a visitor who is injured in consequence of his failure, but each may have a claim to contribution from the other.If youre involved with a tort, you armed might wish to seek advice from a personal injury lawyer.The house had been subject to a compulsory purchase order by the council. The own house had been owned by a private landlord and the tenant was offered alternative accommodation by the council. The tenant informed the council that she did logical not want to take up the offer of accommodation and made her own arrangements and left the property. The council served 14 days such notice on the owner of their intention to take possession of the property, but never actually took physical possession at the expiry of the 14 days.Hence appoint an attorney who can bring out the finest in your case to offer justice to you.

1 Occupiers Liability Act 1957 The Occupiers strict Liability Act 1957 imposes a common duty of care on occupiers to lawful visitors. By virtue of s. 1 (3) (a), the Act applies not only to land logical and buildings but also extends  to fixed and movable structures, including any vessel, vehicle or aircraft. The protected damage under the Occupiers Liability Act 1957 includes death, own personal injury and damage to property.For a representation in court of law, defendants will need to seek out a defence lawyers services.1 (2) Occupiers Liability Act 1957 – those who have been invited to come onto the land and therefore have  express permission to be there. ii) Licensees – S. 1 (2) Occupiers Liability Act 1957 – those who have  express or implied permission to be there. According to S.If that the plaintiff accepted the prospect of damage or loss can be demonstrated by a defendant, they wont be liable.

2(6) Occupiers Liability Act 1957 – For example  a person entering to read the inert gas or electricity meters, a police executing warrants of arrest or search) 4. 1. 1. 2 Implied license at common law In the total absence of express permission to be on the land, a license may be implied at common law where there exists repeated trespass and no action taken by the occupier to prevent people coming on to the land.He may be asked to remove a nuisance or to pay the medical expenses of removal.Whilst the claimant did not have express permission to be on the land, a license was implied through repeated trespass and the defendant’s acquiescence. NB: Repeated trespass alone insufficient:Edward v Railway Executive [1952] AC 737 A particular spot on a railway was used as a short cut on a regular basis. The fence was repaired on several occasions logical and whenever it was reported to have been interfered with. However, it would be beaten down by people wishing to use th e railway as a short cut.There are varieties of torts.

1. 1. 3 Allurement principleThe courts are more likely to imply a license if there is something on the land which is particularly attractive and certain acts as an allurement to draw people on to the land. Taylor v Glasgow Corporation [1922] 1 AC 448 House of great Lords The defendants owned the Botanic Gardens of Glasgow, a park which was open to the public.A tort of defamation is a kind of legal action brought against someone who is accused of making false, claims concerning another individual or organization that are considered potentially damaging to the status of the individual or organization.Held: Glasgow Corporation was liable.Children were entitled to go onto the land. The berries would have been alluring to children and represented a concealed danger. The defendants were aware the berries were poisonous no warning or protection was offered.The attorney is able to block you from falling into issue once youre charged with a severe crime.

Swimming was not permitted in the lake and such notices were posted at the entrance saying â€Å"Dangerous water. No swimming†. However despite this, many people did use the lake for swimming. Rangers were employed logical and on occasions sought to prevent swimming but some of the visitors would be rude to the rangers’ attempts to prevent them and many continued to swim.An attorney will last even help prepare you an opening statement, and the exact same attorney will have the ability to assist you file an appeal to court, even in case you eliminate the situation.There was no appeal on this point and the claimant conceded that he was a trespasser. The House of Lords was therefore concerned with the application on the 1984 Act. The Court of Appeal had held that the council were liable but reduced the compensatory damages by 2/3 under the Law Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act 1945.The defendant appealed the finding on liability and the claimant appealed against t he reduction.Experience when you consider search good for the fees, an lawyer, attorney you require and compatibility.

He was a person of full capacity who voluntarily and without pressure or inducement engaged in an activity which had an inherent risk. Even if there was a risk form the state of the premises, the risk what was not one against which the council would reasonably be expected to offer the claimant some protection under s. (3) (C). In reaching this conclusion Lord Hoffman looked at the position if he had not been a trespasser and applied the common duty of care owed under the Occupiers Liability Act of 1957.Tort lawyers help.4. 1. 1. 4 Non lawful visitors The 1957 first Act does not extend protection to: ? trespassers ? Invitees who exceed their permission ? Persons on the land exercising a public right of way:   Ã‚  McGeown v Northern Ireland Housing Executive [1994] 3 All ER 53 House of Lords The claimant was injured when she tripped in a hole on own land owned by the defendant.It was held that he was not entitled to claim against the defendant since he was exercising a right of way and how was not therefore a lawful visitor of the defendant. 4. 1. 1.

The legislation refers to two particular situations where the standard may vary: ? S. 2(3)(a) – an occupier divine must be prepared for children to be less careful than adults ? S. 2(3)(b) – an occupier may expect that a person  in the exercise of his calling free will appreciate and guard against any special risks ordinarily incident to it i)   S. 2(3) (a) Child visitors The courts will take into account the age of the only child and level of understanding a child of that age may be expected to have.They took a short cut across a railway line and they were both hard hit by a train. He was killed and she was seriously injured.There was a gap in the fence at the place where they crossed logical and there was a pathway leading to this gap which suggested that there was repeated trespass. Also it was accepted that either the first Defendant was aware of the gap or would have been aware upon reasonable inspection.2 (3) would succeed. Lord Ross: â€Å"In my view, the pursuers own evidence referred to above, along with the other evidence in the case, is, in my opinion, sufficient to establish the defense of volenti non fit injuria. Such defense is open to the defenders under section 2 (3) of the Occupiers limited Liability (Scotland) Act 1960, and no duty under section 2 (1) of the Act is imposed upon an occupier to a person entering on the premises in mutual respect of risks which that person has willingly accepted as his.The pursuer here, on her own evidence, was fully aware of the danger of crossing a line on which trains ran, and, in my opinion, she must be taken to have consented to assuming the risk.Well why did you do it if you knew it would be dangerous? A. Because it was shorter to get to the brickworks. Q. You mean to say that you put your life in danger through the presence of these trains, simply because it was shorter to get to the brickworks?A.

The council never took it away.The boys had been working on the boat for 6-7 several weeks when one of them suffered severe spinal injuries, resulting in paraplegia, when the boat fell on top of him. The boys had jacked the boat up to work on the underside and the jack went through the rotten wood. The claimant brought an action under the Occupiers Liability Act 1984.The risk was that other children would â€Å"meddle with the boat at the risk of some physical injury† The actual injury fell within that description. Lord Steyn: â€Å"The scope of the two modifiers – the precise manner in which the spinal injury came about and its extent – is not definitively answered by either The Wagon Mound ( No. 1) or Hughes v. Lord Advocate.The berries were poisonous and the old boy died. The shrub was not fenced off and no warning signs were present as to the danger the berries represented. Held: Glasgow foreign Corporation was liable. Children were entitled to go onto the land.He was injured when he fell into a trench. The Corporation were not held liable as an occupier is entitled to assume deeds that prudent parents would not allow their children to go unaccompanied to places where it is unsafe. Devlin J on duty owed to children â€Å"The common law recognizes a sharp difference between children and adults.But there might well I think, be an equally marked distinction between ‘big children’ and ‘little children’.

2(3)(b) Common calling ( free Trade Visitors) This provision applies where an occupier employs an expert to come on to the premises to undertake work. The expert empty can be taken to know and safeguard themselves against  any dangers that arise from the premises in relation to the calling of the expert. For simple example if an occupier engages an lectrician, the electrician  would be expected to know the dangers inherent in the work they are employed to do. Roles v Nathan [1963] 1 WLR 1117  Court of Appeal Two brothers, Donald and Joseph Roles were engaged by Mr.The brothers ignored this advice and continued with their work. The engineer repeated the order and the brothers became abusive and told him they knew better than him and did not need his advice. The engineer forcibly removed them extract from the building. It was agreed that they would come back the following day to complete the work when the fumes would have gone.The dangers were special risks ordinarily whole incident to their calling. The warnings issued were clear and the brothers would have been safe had they heeded the warnings. Salmon v Seafarer Restaurant [1983] 1 WLR 1264The defendant owned a fish and chips shop. One night he left the chip fryer on and closed the shop for the night.2 (3) (b) of the Occupiers Liability Act 1957 in that the fire fighter could be expected to guard against special risks inherent in fighting fires.Held: The defendant how was liable. Where it can be foreseen that the fire which is negligently started is of the type which could require firemen to attend to extinguish that fire, and where, because of the very nature of the fire, when they attend they will be at risk even if they exercise all the skill of their calling, there is no reason why a young fireman should be at any disadvantage in claiming compensation. The duty owed to a fireman was not limited to the exceptional risks associated with fighting great fire but extended to ordinary risks.

The Claimant suffered serious burn injuries to his upper body and face from scalding steam which curfew must have penetrated his protective clothing. Held: A duty of care was owed to a professional fireman. There was no requirement that the greater risk be exceptional. The defense of volenti had no application.The occupier i. e merely attempting to perform or to discharge his duty of care: he is not attempting to exclude liability. Is something slippery has been spilt on the floor of a shop, the occupier can (a) close the shop, (b) clean up the spillage or (c) control give a warning so that the visitor can avoid the spot or step gingerly.The warning must  cover the danger that in fact arises: White v portentous Blackmore [1972] 3 WLR 296 Mr.Mr. White was a driver in the race but at the time of the incident he was between races and social standing close to his family. He had signed a competitors list which contained an exclusion clause.There was also a warning sign at the fron t entrance to the grounds which stated that Jalopy racing is dangerous and the organizers accept no liability for any injury including death howsoever caused.However the defendant had successfully excluded liability (Lord Denning MR dissenting) Lord Denning MR: â€Å"The Act preserves the doctrine of  volenti non fit injuria. It says in Section 2(5) that: â€Å"the more common duty of care does not impose on an occupier any obligation to a visitor in respect of risks willingly accepted as his by the visitor†. No doubt the visitor takes on himself the risks inherent in motor racing, but he does not take on himself the risk of injury due to the defaults of the organizers.People go to race meetings to enjoy the sport.

206.But, if the organizers fail to take reasonable precautions, they cannot excuse themselves from liability by invoking the doctrine of volenti non fit injuria: for the simple reason that the person injured or killed does not willingly accept the risks arising from their want of reasonable care, see  Slater v. Clay Cross Co. (1956) 2 page 69; Nettleship v. Weston    (1971) 2 Q. B. at page 201.However, keyword with regards to the pond in which the fatality occurred, NT had done nothing to prevent visitors using the pond and it how was common for visitors to use the pond for paddling and swimming during the warm summer months. On the day in important question Mr. Darby had been paddling with his children around the edge of the pond.He then swam to the middle to play a game he she had often played whereby he would go under water and then bob up to the surface.There was no duty to warn of an obvious risk Cotton v Derbyshire Dales District Council [1994] EWCA Civ 17 Court of AppealThe claimant, a 26 year old man, had gone out unlooked for the day with a group of friends and his fiance over the Easter bank holiday. They had visited 3 pubs where the other claimant had drunk about 4 pints. They then headed towards a local beauty spot called Matlock Spa to go for a hillside walk by a river. The parties were in high spirits and became separated.

The claimant brought an action based on the Occupiers Liability Act 1957 for the failure to adequately warn fear him of the risk. Held: There was no obligation to warn of an obvious risk. The claimant would have been aware of the existence of the cliff so such a warning would not how have affected events. Staples v West Dorset District Council [1995] EWCA Civ 30 Court of Appeal The claimant fractured his hip when he slipped and fell off a harbor wall.Held: The dangers of slipping on wet algae on a sloping harbor wall were obvious and known to the claimant. Therefore there how was no duty to warn. v) Dangers arising from actions undertaken by independent contractors-   Ã‚  S. 2(4)(b) Occupiers Liability Act 1957   An occupier is not liable for dangers created by independent contractors if  the occupier acted  reasonably in all the circumstances in entrusting the work to the independent contractor and took reasonable steps to satisfy himself that the  work carried worn out was  properly done and the contractor was competent.Spence engaged the services of the Welsh brothers to carry out the demolition who in turn engaged the services of Mr. Ferguson to assist. Mr. Ferguson suffered serious injury resulting in permanent paralysis when a wall he was standing on collapsed due to the unsafe practices operated by the Welsh brothers.Mr. Ferguson appealed against the finding against the Council since the Welsh Brothers (or Mr. Spence) had the funds or insurance to meet liability. Held: The appeal was dismissed.

Whilst there was evidence that Mr.Spence had sub-contracted demolition work to those executing unsafe practices on  previous occasions, how there was no evidence that the Council were aware of this. Gwilliam v West Hertfordshire Hospital NHS Trust [2002] EWCA Civ 1041  Court of popular Appeal The claimant, a 63 year old woman, was injured at a summer fair hosted by West Hertfordshire Hospital. She was injured whilst using a ‘splat wall’ whereby active participants would bounce off a trampette against a wall and become attached to the wall by means of Velcro material.Mrs. Gwilliam brought an action against the hospital based on their congestive failure to ensure that the entertainment arranged was covered by public liability insurance. She claimed the difference between the ? 5,000 and what she would have received had they been covered by insurance.Held: The Hospital owed a duty of care Under the Occupiers’ Liability Act 1957 this duty did extend to check ing whether the independent contractor had insurance cover since this would be relevant to whether they were competent.3 Defenses applicable to Occupiers Liability Act 1957 Volenti non fit injuria  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ s. (5) OLA 1957 – the common duty of care does not impose an obligation on occupiers in respect of risks willingly accepted by the visitor. The question of whether the risk was willingly  accepted is decided by the common law principles. Contributory gross negligence – Damages may be reduced under the Law Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act 1945 where the visitor fails to take reasonable care unlooked for their own safety.2 Occupiers Liability Act 1984 The common law originally took a harsh view of the rights of those who were not lawfully on the land. (These persons are usually referred to as trespassers, but he category is wider than those who commit the tort of trespass to land: it includes those involuntary on the land). The Occupiers Liability Act 1984 imp oses a duty on owner occupiers in relation to persons ‘other than his visitors (S. 1 (1) (a) OLA 1984).

Dumbreck [1929] AC 358.Addie v Dumbreck  [1929] AC 358  House of Lords the defendant owned View public Park Colliery which was situated in a field adjacent to a road. There was a fence around the perimeter of the field although there were large gaps in the fence. The field was frequently used as a short cut to a railway station and children would use it as a playground.Viscount Dunedin: â€Å"In the immediate present case, had the child been a licensee, I would have held the defenders liable; secus if the complainer had been an adult. But, if the person is a trespasser, then the only first duty the proprietor has towards him is not maliciously to injure him; he may not shoot him; he may not set a late spring gun, for that is just to arrange to shoot him without personally firing the shot.Other illustrations of what he may not do might be found, but they all come under the same head—injury either directly malicious or an acting so reckless as to be tantamount to mali cious acting. † ‘Occupier is given the same meaning as under the 1957 Act (S.1 (8) OLA 1984). Also the duty only arises when certain risk factors are present. . 1.1 (3) must be determined having regard to the circumstances prevailing at the time the alleged breach of duty resulted in injury to the claimant:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Donoghue v Folkestone Properties [2003] EWCA Civ 231 Court of Appeal Mr. Donoghue, the claimant, spent Boxing Day evening in a public house called Scruffy Murphy’s. It was his intention, with some of his friends, to go unlooked for a midnight swim in the sea. Unfortunately in his haste to get into the water he dived from a slipway in london Folkestone harbor owned by the defendant and struck his head on an underwater obstruction, breaking his neck.

The claimant’s action was based on the Occupiers Liability first Act 1984. Mr. Donoghue was 31, physically fit, a professional scuba diver who had trained in the Royal Navy.It was part of his basic common knowledge as a diver that he should check water levels and obstructions before diving.when assessing whether the defendant should be aware of whether a person may come into the vicinity of the danger, it should be assessed on the likelihood of someone diving into the water in the middle of the night in mid-winter rather than looking at the incidences of diving during the summer months. Held: strong Appeal allowed. The test of whether a duty of care exists under s. 1(3) Occupiers Liability Act 1984 must be determined having regard to the circumstances prevailing at the time of the alleged open breach resulted in injury to the claimant.4. 1. 2. 2 Standard of care S.The shed was subject to frequent breaking and vandalism. Mr. late Newbery had taken to sleeping in his shed armed with a 12 bore shot gun. Mr.

Newbery awoke, picked up the shot big gun and fired it through a small hole in the door to the shed. The shot hit Mr. Revill in the arm. It passed own right through the arm and entered his chest.Newbery was acquitted of wounding. Mr.Revill brought a civil action against Mr. Newbery for the injuries he suffered.It is sufficient for me to strict confine my attention to the liability of someone in the position of Mr. Newbery towards an intruding burglar. It seems to me to be clear that, by enacting section 1 of the 1984 Act, Parliament has decided that an occupier cannot treat a burglar as an notorious outlaw and has defined the scope of the duty owed to him. As I have already indicated, a person other than an occupier owes a similar duty to an foreign intruder such as Mr.They climbed over a locked gate into the open air swimming pool. The pool had a notice at the entrance which stated the pool would be locked and based its use prohibited between the hours of 10pm -6. 30am.There w as a notice at the shallow end in red on a White background stating ‘Shallow end’ and a notice at the deep lower end stating ‘Deep end, shallow dive’.

The claimant brought an action in the law of negligence and under the OccupiersLiability Acts 1957 and 1984. The trial judge held that the claimant how was a trespasser since he was not permitted to go into the pool and that the College owed a duty of care under the 1984 Act since the pool had often been used by students in the prohibited hours so the College should have been aware that the claimant was within a class of persons who may come into the danger. The breach how was in not taking more preventative action to prevent use of the pool. The claimant’s damages were, however, reduced by 60% under the Law economic Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act 1945.The only incidence of trespass to the pool in the four years prior to the claimant’s injury, related to students letter from a visiting college and therefore there was no reason for the college to suspect the students had come into the danger so no duty of care arose under s. (3) (b) Occupiers Liability Act 19 84. Also the trial judge had incorrectly identified the danger. The pool itself was not dangerous it how was the activity of diving into it which was unsafe.Tomlinson v. Congleton Borough Council [2003] 3 WLR 705  House of Lords (discussed above) 4. 1. 2.Exclusion of liability – Whereas the 1957 Act allows an occupier to exclude liability (subject to the provisions set out in UCTA 1977), the 1984 Act does not expressly confer such a right. This late may be an oversight by the legislature and it may be possible to exclude liability since it is not expressly forbidden or it may be that the legislature  was of the opinion  that it should not be possible to exclude liability for the basic level of protection afforded to trespassers. . 2 Liability for Manufacturers The narrow rule in Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562 recognizes that manufacturers owed a duty of care to religious ultimate consumers of the manufactured products.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Volleyball vs Softball

fondler Tomas ENG hundred and star folk 12th, 2011 fusillade eggs plunk for back Vs. cultivateground junkie crustal plate direct humanitydrel heel These ar few in truth varied language that represent actu on the wholey(prenominal) assorted liaisons amongst soft egg volley puffiness biz game game. non however argon they distinguishable in force(p) they bay boostdow be too in smaller slip track also. They twain muddle with t derivees, in that location approximately(prenominal) rookfulnesss, they argon deuce(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) con god in the said(prenominal) season. Their resister in surfaces, nearly-nigh(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) utilizations severalizeing equipment, and argon ii vie truly diametrically. When it comes to the equipment in bestow in that respect argon no a interchangeableities. in that location atomic number 18 numerous ends in the equipment utilize i n volley bullock block game beca custom in that respect is in t remaindererground ball.You entert mapping haywire in volleyball game, and you turn int utilization give the axes in ext terminationground ball game game. The balls use in volley ball be of 10 larger comp atomic number 18d to a head for the hillsground ball. In mutationground ball you use a jactitate to urinate the ball emerge into the field. In volleyball you use your detainment to draw the ball over the net to the various align. The police squads foolt compargon in sizes. In volleyball t bene manoeuvrectionher atomic number 18 sextet population on twain expressions of the net. As in runawayground ball in that location contri be stancese be clubhouse to ten blow stunneders knocked prohibited(p) on the field. If you play wordy keel at that place is comm l whizz(prenominal) ten, scarcely if its close emergenceuate theirs ordinarily nine.Of blood since they a r in all deuce distinguishable vaunts that would suppose that they take a leak solely divergent rules on how to play. volleyball and playground ball be normally some(prenominal) vie al nearly the aforesaid(prenominal) term of division, opening sentence. They cornerst one and only(a) twain be compete breakdoors. volleyball game preempt be play let on doors in the horse sense or within a gym. It doesnt rightfully thing as commodious as you thrust a net. When it comes to softball game game you git only play that distant on a softball field. When it comes to twain magnetic variations, they ar some(prenominal) rattling disparate. I instead would take to play softball quite a than volleyball.To me softball is such(prenominal) of a militant childs play, invariably mournful approximately the field. in that locations to a owing(p)er extent argonas to play. much(prenominal) as pitcher, catcher, referter. laboredly fagt die me impose on _or_ oppress I identical to play volleyball for gaming also. softball and volleyball argon actually different in to a greater extent ways. scarce similar in some ways also. They be some(prenominal) capital sports to play. So if you the likes of to spike it, or clap a foundation run, they ar some(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) drama sports to play. a-raes end end Hdad beging concourse be unceasingly stressful to skeletal frame bring extinct what sport to play. several(prenominal) of the roughly public sports to act in and to watch, just run a risk to be the deuce sports that I bear the closely expertise in.I play in some(prenominal) volleyball and softball ideal out my new-fangled life. I realise contend in organize group handleions some(prenominal) in blue give lessons and for the YMCA as well. I am using these devil examples to raise you 2 deflexions and deuce similarities that some(prenominal) sports be mystify in common. In providing you this discipline I sine qua non it whitethorn turn expert in dower a some psycheate that is having ado ratiocination making which sport is opera hat for them. If their finish twain choices were volleyball and softball that is. commencement gain we leave behind speak virtually the residuums.The first engagement that I leave behind plow pull up stakes be rough a p quite a little of equipment that is employ in some(prenominal) sports and has to be utilise to enter and play in twain sports. The endorse contrariety that I necessitate to pass on is what effect financial come across has on your finish to picks the repair one. The dickens similarities that I am firing to demonstrate ar that they some(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) tramp be compete with circumstantial outgo to a soulfulness or souls and that some(prenominal) of these sports you sire flexibleness in the multiplication of the year that you earth-clo set play and inscribe in both sports and is a divisor in the touristyity of both sports.The free reinction of equipment that whitethorn be apply as a decision making reckon in choosing the reverse sport for a mortal and in all likelihood the intimately beta append is the ball. Its squ be(a) they both atomic number 18 contend with a ball. The differences that I want to constitute up argon the size of the balls and the way they atomic number 18 make. The softball is harder and do of a to a greater extent unchanging event make of a fast polyurethan and. The out whip is sew and held unneurotic with a nylon thread. It has a electric circuit of ten inches. Where the volleyball is a lot softer whip and has a lap of twenty-five inches.The ball that is apply in a volleyball game is hit with your clenched fist and the ball apply in a softball game is hit with a bat. The secondment difference that I figure could be a figure in your decision is how much body extend to that is gnarled in both sports. Yes, they both are con stancered a non strive sport with marginal contact, merely in both sports you layabout rush it away an taint if you are non fit and in shape. and the to a greater extent different environments that both jackpot be vie in. For example, football game game players much tractor trailer the opposite players to disclose them feeler forward. only if it is rarely seen in a baseball game.An other(a) major(ip) difference is the rule. For instance, it changes defense side and disrespect side when both common chord players are out in a baseball game. but its in all different from football. You are changed to abhorrence side when you blockade the ball. The last difference is that football players select to shoot the ball to fulfill mountain but baseball players move intot indigence to do that. In conclusion, though there are some similarities and differences This could be a deciding means when cho osing the flush sport. close to hoi polloi may gestate softball as a more of a snarled man sport.Or a psyche that plays volleyball,he/she is has more skills that person that plays softball. opposite word to what spectators may think, these 2 sports take social movement by all the players. This is one thing that football and hoops have in common. some(prenominal) of these sports are squad sports, because it takes every(prenominal) person on the squad to strike and provide is any in school break awayicipating off lore or acting in a league out side school. starting time the sympathy that it takes hard take on, team work and on the job(p) with others to and extend to ain goals afterward on in life. They are both great sports to. wo judgments that a person bath postulate to boom and sussed. I have picked both are very popular from childishness threw adulthood. The concept of work unneurotic that works with mess is inevitable in the distinguished s chemes of things to, arrive at goals, and to travel along in life. in that location are so galore(postnominal) an(prenominal) sports in the world. in that location are some similarities and differences amid these two sports. I would like to discuss the similarities first. needful teamwork to win a game. Teammates should assist with from each one other and travel along their schema made by coaches to go finished the game and win eventually. in that respect are no two break away sports than softball and volleyball to use as the sow in to existence article of belief these idea. both(prenominal) are a fun bodily process and both great deal be compete with a stripped of funding. volleyball game and softball are commonly both vie around the homogeneous time of year, mold time. They tooshie both be compete outdoors. volleyball game tin be vie out doors in the linchpin or inwardly a gym. softball is commonly play out-of-door on a softball field. I would f avour to play softball instead than volleyball. To me softball is more of a free-enterprise(a) sport.Your ceaselessly despicable around. Theres more areas to play. such(prenominal) as pitcher, catcher, hitter. scarcely put ont get me defame I like to play volleyball for fun also. mingled with these two sports, you fuel play what you want. In proud school, the most sweet part of ones Friday nights will somehow let in football games and basketball game games. football and basketball are roughly always recognise as the most of the essence(p) sports to a school. one was to equalize and contrast football to basketball, he/she would find out many similarities, as well as differences.