Saturday, September 21, 2019
Sri Lanka: Agriculture, Technology and Culture
Sri Lanka: Agriculture, Technology and Culture TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY Sri Lanka has had an innovative agricultural technology. Sri Lanka has had a rich agricultural technology. Because we can found new methods and new instrument for agricultural works now a days.Ã farmers can save time and they can doing their work instantly by using these method and instrument, however I think there Is complex agricultural system in Sri Lanka now a days because so meny artificial things are used for agriculture works. As example machines, chemichals ect. But modern agricultural methods are having adverse effect on envioronment and crops Agribusiness is the most imperative segment of the Sri Lankan economy. Despite the fact that its commitment to the total national output declined considerably amid the previous 3 decades (from 30 percent in 1970 to 21 percent in 2000), it is the most vital wellspring of work for most of the Sri Lankan workforce. Around 38 percent of the aggregate work compel was occupied with horticulture in 1999. In the subsistence part, rice is the principle harvest and cultivating rice is the most essential monetary action for most of the general population living in rustic ranges. Amid the most recent 5 decades the rice part developed quickly and yield dramatically multiplied, coming to the most elevated at any point yield of 2.9 million metric tons in 1999Increments in the region under development, and enhanced efficiency because of the modernization of farming are the fundamental explanations behind an expansion underway. The restoration of Sri Lankas broad antiquated water system arrange and g igantic new interest in development and support of water system framework prompted to a substantial increment in the zone under rice development. Between 1960-2000, the range used to develop rice expanded 6 times to 546,249 hectares. The modernization of cultivating techniques, for example, the utilization of high-yielding seeds, tractors, and synthetic manures additionally prompted to expanded profitability in the rice division. Between 1960-1999, rice yield per hectare multiplied from 1,877 kilograms to 3,672 kilograms. Notwithstanding rice, different other nourishment yields are created for neighborhood utilization. They incorporate yams, beats, grains, vegetables, and natural products. A large portion of these products are developed in family gardens, aside from potatoes and sugar. Sugar stick is developed in the dry zone, and Sri Lanka delivers just 15 percent of what it devours locally. The significant manor harvests of tea, elastic, and coconuts keep on figuring unmistakably in the economy of Sri Lanka; notwithstanding, the commitment of these business yields to GDP declined from 11.5 percent in 1970 to 5 percent in 2000. Tea, the unmistakable product of the manor division, develops in many parts of the wet zone, and specifically in the focal slope nation. Sri Lanka is renowned for its top notch dark tea, and is the biggest provider on the planet. In 1999, 269.3 million kilograms of tea (95 percent of aggregate tea generation) was sent out, procuring US$621 million in outside trade. The United Kingdom, Russia, and the Middle East are the real fare markets The second significant business product is elastic, developing in the edge and valley nation of the wet zone inside. Of 159,000 hectares under development, around 80 percent was being tapped (gathered) and in 1999, 96.6 million kilograms of elastic were delivered. A sizable extent of elastic creation is utilized as a part of the residential assembling segment (56 percent in 1999) and the rest of traded. In 1999 fare income added up to US$33 million. China is generally the significant purchaser of Sri Lankan elastic. The execution of this part has been liable to precariousness because of ominous developments in world costs. Rivalry from manufactured elastic makers has created elastic costs to drop. Be that as it may, with rising petroleum costs (the real element for engineered elastic) there is a possibility at world elastic costs to move forward. Antiquated Sri Lanka was an independent, flourishing horticultural economy the staple nourishment, rice, was developed in broad paddy fields, while vegetables, greens, grains and oats were developed in rain-encouraged grounds called Chenas. Chena is viewed as the most seasoned type of development in Sri Lanka, stretching out as far back as 5000 years in Sri Lankan history. Chena development was a customary practice and old Sri Lankans guaranteed that the earth was unharmed simultaneously. The methods used to develop a chena relied on upon a scope of factors including the atmosphere, way of soil and other ecological and topological elements of the territory. Chena development was fundamentally polished by men; be that as it may, ladies and youngsters additionally broadened their guide in different courses, for example, shielding crops from striking winged animals and creatures. Old, conventional ceylon agriculturists emphatically trusted in numerous religious and profound customs and practices. For example, agriculturists trusted that the individual who starts development of a Chena ought to be drained of contaminations, called Kili in the Sinhala dialect. It was additionally standard of Chena cultivators to petition their religious confidence before they start development. A solid proclivity to soothsaying likewise guaranteed that development initiated on a promising day and time Chena was developed all in all; every town had one chena plot which was partitioned into individual shares among the villagers. The insight behind this joint effort was a result of craving to secure the encompassing timberland. On the off chance that every villager was permitted to clear their own plot of land for development, the timberland would soon vanish. In this way the town would by and large select one range of land for development and share the yield. Navadali Hena is chena arrive made by clearing an untouched timberland territory, setting it ablaze and developing it instantly after. Navadali truly means new ash, which can be discovered plentifully all through the Navadali Hena. As the region has not been worked beforehand, a Navadali Hena is exceedingly fruitful and acquires a high return of yield. Be that as it may, ranchers avoid developing an excessive number of this kind of chena as it requires clearing new woods arrive therefore prompting to lessening in timberland cover. The woods starts to re-develop in the deserted Navadali Hena arrive following a couple of months. At the point when the trees have achieved the normal length of a grown-up people arm, the semi-wild is cleared and set ablaze for development. This sort of chena land is called Ath Danduwa Hena, Ath Dandu signifying a safe distance. A woodland which comprises of medium-sized trees is known as a Mukalana. Hence Mukalana Hena is a kind of chena developed by clearing the medium and little measured trees of a Mukalana woods. Once a land becomes infertile as a result of repeated tilling, it is abandoned by the farmers. This abandoned chena is still tilled by feeble, sick or old farmers who cannot extend their support to the collaborative chena cultivation as it is a strenuous activity. Hen Kanaththa does not produce an abundant crop, but it is sufficient for the survival of these farmers. Generally, antiquated chena cultivators cooperatively chose the kind of chena to be developed, regardless of whether it ought to be Navadali Hena, Mukalan Hena, or Ath Danduwa Hena. Once a choice is made, they would choose a proper land range; rough zones were regularly kept away from and zones with a spring were favored. Vee Bissa is one of the more prominent creations of antiquated agriculturists. It was utilized to store paddy for both utilization and for development. Contingent upon the sort and nature of paddy, diverse sorts of Vee Bissas were set up, for example, the Ma Vee Bissa, Vadimal Vee Bissa and Bala Vee Bissa. Among alternate sorts of paddy stockpiles, Piduru Bissa, Waruva, Veniya and Pesa were well known with the old and conventional agriculturists. The Vee Bissa was held with high see in antiquated society as it was an unmistakable sign of a mans riches and impact. The quantity of Vee Bissas claimed by a man was thought about in engagement propositions too. Numerous customs are taken after when setting up a Vee Bissa. It was set up at the passageway of the house far from the terrace and toilets, maintaining a strategic distance from spots with high moistness or consistent water leakage. A sufficiently bright and dry place is the perfect area for setting up a Vee Bissa. The materials expected to set up a Vee Bissa were gathered from their environment and the prompt wilderness. Each progression during the time spent setting up a Vee Bissa guaranteed the protection of the nature of paddy seeds. The Vee Bissa is bolstered by four sections made of stone or wood. The base is lifted a couple meters over the ground to evade any contact with soil and water that may influence the paddy. The body of the Vee Bissa is produced using an exceptional sort of earth got from ant colony dwelling places. Once these layers of dirt become scarce, dairy animals excrement is then covered along within the Vee Bissa to keep creepy crawlies from nourishing on the paddy. Red ant colony dwelling place earth was normally utilized because of its sticky nature and high porosity. This dirt goes away quicker when contrasted and other mud sorts and does not bring about breaks. The dry earth does not assimilate water promptly. The put away paddy gets ventilation through the minor pores show in the dirt and the oval shape encourages uniform ventilation all through the Vee Bissa. The Vee Bissa is secured with a Piyassa which shields the seeds by keeping water from going into it while likewise giving shade to the Vee Bissa. This keeps the paddy from being influenced by growths. A layer of Margosa forgets would be spread over the top layer of paddy once the Vee Bissa is topped off to shield it from unsafe creepy crawlies. Beside putting away paddy for utilization, agriculturists likewise put away them for development purposes. The germination force of paddy seeds are all around ensured in a Vee Bissa. At present, agriculturists are confronted with numerous issues concerning the capacity of paddy. These issues were never experienced by antiquated and customary ranchers as the Vee Bissa permitted them to store paddy for expanded periods without it getting spoilt. There is no hardware or innovation today that can coordinate to the Vee Bissa as far as having the capacity to save the germination force of paddy. Todays ranchers utilize capacity compartments made of concrete while putting away paddy, be that as it may it is far fetched on the off chance that they are equipped for ensuring the germination control as proficiently as a Vee Bissa. A Nagula is utilized to furrow the land before paddy is developed. Furrowing relaxes the dirt encouraging great ventilation and water supply to the dirt, while additionally devastating weeds and boosting microbial action. Old and conventional ranchers of Sri Lanka utilized distinctive sorts of Nagulas -, for example, the Sinhala Nagula, Yakada (Iron) Nagula, and Kakulan Nagula in light of the development of the land and example of development. Sri Lankan ranchers normally utilized Sinhala Nagula for furrowing. The handle of a Nagula is identify Nimun Kurulla or the Nagul Atha. The handle is settled to a grasp called Nimun Mita. The Vakkote is the piece of a Nagula that hollows the ground out. The Nagula is dragged along the ground by its stem, Pathakadaya which is attached to a wooden bar or burden (Viyagaha) by a harmony called an Amuthu Bana. The Viyagaha is put on the neck of bulls. The Amuthu Bana is usually made of deer or sambar deer skin, or from crude skin of a coconut shaft or skins of trees, for example, Lihiniya or Nava. An edge is made in the Viyagaha to grasp the Nagula. A stick called Kewita is utilized to drive the working bovines (bull, cow, wild oxen) while furrowing. Once the field is furrowed, the bovines are discharged from the Nagula quickly, and showered in the Boradiya Mankada of the Vewa (water system tank), and nourished diverse areas of a water system tank is utilized for various purposes, the Boradiya Mankada of a tank is utilized to bathe working creatures. Sri Lankan ranchers of old had extraordinary regard for the instruments and creatures they utilized as a part of their cultivating exercises. In this manner, once their working creatures are dealt with, they would wash and clean the Nagula also, and hang it on their Vee Bissa (a capacity structure used to store paddy). A Nagula is never continued the ground and a sloppy Nagula is never utilized for furrowing the next day. A Kumbura or Ketha is the arrive on which agriculturists develop paddy. Rice is the staple nourishment of Sri Lanka and in that capacity, paddy development is given most extreme significance in the agribusiness business. Antiquated and customary ranchers were independent in rice creation and old Ceylon is said to have been among the principal paddy exporters on the planet. Paddy generation in the nation prospered amid the rule of Sri Lankan lords, who cultivated and sustained creation in different ways including, most remarkably, the supply of water through the development of extensive scale water system tanks Ceylon was famously known as The Great Barn of the East amid the rule of King Parakramabahu who is eminent for his pressure driven development and redesign in help of agribusiness. Kurulupaluwa is one of numerous philanthropic techniques rehearsed by antiquated agriculturists. A great part of the farming practices of old worked concordantly with nature, instigating almost no (these were reversible) to no harm to the earth and untamed life. There are two sorts of Kumburu: Godakumburu and Madakumburu. Godakumburu are developed without a changeless water supply, rather paddy is developed here with the guide of rain water. These sorts of Kumburu were not well known among ranchers, because of the unconventionality of precipitation. Madakumburu were significantly more famous as these had a perpetual water supply by method for a water system tank or stream. See Sama is the way toward frightening and get ready land before paddy development, which is done utilizing a Nagula (furrow) and bulls. See Sama was performed ceremoniously amid the reign of rulers in a celebration called Vapmagula. Numerous religious ceremonies were likewise seen by conventional and antiquated agriculturists before nerve racking initiated. When frightening is finished, paddy seeds are sown or saplings are planted in the ground. No chemicals or poisons were utilized to improve the dirt of paddy fields. Antiquated and conventional agriculturists utilized compost, fallen leaves and rotted roughage to treat their property. These natural composts enhanced microbial movement in soil. The yield from this technique for treatment was high and missing of unsafe poisons. Poru Gama is the way toward leveling the paddy field with the utilization of bulls and an apparatus known as the Poruva. Poru Gama is by and large done fourteen days subsequent to nerve racking and treating paddy fields. This procedure guarantees that there is uniform water spill out of one Liyadda to another. Bovines (bulls, bullock, cows) who help the rancher in the many phases of paddy development are a significant resource for him. Along these lines, agriculturists treat their working creatures with most extreme love and care. They are never incited damage by the Kewita (a stick used to drive and direct the bovines) amid See Sama, Poru Gama and so on. The creatures are never over-worded and are given a lot of nourishment, water and rest in an opportune way. Toward the finish of a working day, the bovines would be washed and cleaned and given scavenge. The creatures are never utilized the whole day (they are just worked around 5 to 6 hours a day) and are never worked under a brutal sun (this was particularly amid the day and at twelve). A wooden fence called the Danduvata, made by stacking and tying fallen and trimmed tree stems and branches, is set up around the whole Kumburuyaya to keep wild creatures from assaulting crop. Moreover, a scarecrow (Pambaya) is raised and a Takeya (a harsh chime sort protest) is hung to drive off flying creatures and small creatures. Agriculturists would keep watch over their Kumbura for the duration of the day and night in unpleasant cut watch hovels called Pela to pursue away assaulting creatures. Sri Lanka has encountered many changes in the course of the most recent century which has significantly affected customary rice cultivating in the nation. An adjustment in the atmosphere can be viewed as the island has confronted a diminishment of precipitation and an expansion in air temperature in specific ranges of the nation. Moreover, arrive utilized for vegetation has been put to different uses bringing about lost 50 for every penny of timberland cover. The populace has additionally expanded by 15 million in a land region of 6.54 million hectares throughout the most recent 60 years. Event of cataclysmic events, for example, dry spells, surges, violent winds, avalanches, pestilences, and so on., has made life troublesome for individuals to run about with their exercises. Conventional reasonable horticulture moving towards present day innovation escalated mode is somewhat to be reprimanded for these catastrophic events. Customary agriculturists who assembled involvement and abilities over hundreds of years, figured out how to support yields under unfavorable cultivating conditions utilizing locally accessible assets. A review led by the creator with the support of Future in Our Hands, during2007 2010 in the Moneragala region, explored how customary rice cultivating and the related environment confronted the test of dry spell and developing issues of present day cultivating by following adapting methodologies from the past. Customary framework honed by ranchers incorporates: i) development of conventional rice assortments; ii) utilization of natural composts (straw, green excrement, cow waste, poultry fertilizer, fluid manure and so on.); iii) administration of filters out hand weeding, mechanical weeding, and water administration; iv) administration of bug and maladies by rehearsing Kem krama (ceremonies), keeping up bio-differing qualities, and utilizing bio-pesticides; and v) administration of accessible water without prompting to dampness push. A review was completed in 16 towns, where a few agriculturists honed customary cultivating and some others embrace present day cultivating. The fundamental contrasts found in present day cultivating contrasted with conventional cultivating were that the agriculturists utilized: i) new enhanced rice assortments; ii) Inorganic composts (urea, muriate of potash and triple super phosphate); iii) Weedicides; iv) Pesticides; and v) pre-booked water system. These two cultivating frameworks were surveyed by utilizing different markers, for example, profitability of land, work, capital, and seed, input cost and net return per unit weight of grains. Comes about demonstrated that the customary rice cultivating when embraced for a couple seasons could endure dry season conditions, diminish soil saltiness, and enhance soil P, K and natural matter and some physical properties. In addition, cost of generation diminished while work and capital profitability expanded. The framework enhanced its ability to control bugs with no extra measure. Discoveries are abridged in the table beneath. In lavish tropical Sri Lanka, paddy development took profound root, changing into the backbone of the islanders and setting the pace for a national culture decorated with expound ceremonies revolved around the readiness of the fields and the collecting of the grain. Sri Lankas unbelievable gathers once brought it notoriety as the Granary of the East. Chronicled records disclose to us that paddy was developed in Anuradhapura in 161 BC and thrived there until 1017 AD. Today, it is developed over the Island. As society developed, exercises and individuals near the heart of paddy development rose to unmistakable quality. By keeping the Island nourished, the goviyas or paddy ranchers rose the progressive system of the Sinhalese cast framework, raised by illustrious support in light of the fact that, all things considered, they satisfied the general populations craving as were meriting regard. Paddy development was a mutual joint effort including both the land-owning ranchers and the sharecroppers or ande goviyas, who worked exclusively and by and large, from the seeding toÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¨the reaping, under the direction of shrewd and climate beaten seniors. The development cycle was a high purpose of their social life. Everybody contributed. History specialist, Dr Ananda Coomaraswamy writes in Medieval Sinhalese Art, Extraordinary Chiefs were not afraid to grasp the furrow. The larger part of town society were carried into close touch with the dirt and with each other by cooperating in the fields; even the experts used to drop their apparatuses to do a share of the field work when need was, as at sowing or reap time Divine mediation was sort to secure favors for an abundant collect, and assurance from the components and from infection. At initially, it was the divine forces of the people religions of the land that the ranchers swung to. After the landing of Buddhism in Sri Lanka in 250 BCE, Buddhist customs took unmistakable quality and these society practices were consolidated under its umbrella. The customs varied from place to put. In the low nation, for instance, a function was held to secure the support of the Gara Yakka, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¨a evil presence accepted to bring about inconvenience in the event that he is not sought. In Anuradhapura, a function was held to thank the Aiyanayaka deiyo, a diety related with the supply, denoting the vital association between the agrarian individuals and their water. Old Sri Lanka had a great water powered biological community. Progressive rulers fabricated expound water frameworks to flood the land, gather water, and nourish the paddy fields, specking the scene with man made repositories. The cadence of the Islands paddy development cycles blended with the storm rains: the upper east rainstorm watered the Maha or significant yield cycle, which begins with seeding in October-November for havesting in February and March; and the southwest rainstorm watered the Yala or minor product cycle planted over April and May for reaping in August-September. 70% of the Islands rice gather originates from the previous, and the rest from the last mentioned. The ranchers honed two fundamental types of development: dry seed and wet-bed, the last being the more common. One strategy for dry seed development is known as kekulama, when the land to be developed was guaranteed from the backwoods, and alternate as vee hena if the land was under the moving or hena development technique, where the initial step is the earth being furrowed, left to settle for a couple days, and after that seeded with dry sprouted seeds. Just certain areas of land were dry seeded, and whatever is left of the land was set up for wetland development, to be done when the tanks were overflowing with water. Couple of occasions in Sri Lanka are attempted without counseling a celestial prophet who decides the favorable time for an effective result. Along these lines critical exercises like furrowing, seeding, sifting and reaping were started at propitious circumstances. One of the main demonstrations was for the ranchers to clear, clean and secure the conduits, pathways and regions. That finished, the gifts of the divine beings were secured with a pledge or guarantee, fixed by tying up a coin in a bit of new white fabric and joining it to the branch of a holy nuga tree close to the water source. The conduit entryway was opened, discharging water into the fields, the minute reported with the lighting of fireworks. At that point started the working and furrowing of the earth. Before, wild oxen were utilized to furrow the land, though today, tractors have set a considerable lot of these creatures out into the wild. The seedlings are then planted, with the primary seedling formally situated in the focal point of the field by the senior agriculturist. Areas of land at two closures of the field were left unsown ridiculous and creepy crawlies to appreciate. Watch cottages or pela are set up high over the ground to keep watch over the green abundance. The watchers had a Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¨clear perspective of the whole field. Flames are made to keep damaging creatures away. To remain wakeful, the watchers would sing pel kavi, melodies of the watch hovel. Gradually, the fields would turn a brilliant cocoa. Reap time was a period of cheering, to be commended in melody. The men cut the paddies and the ladies assembled them into bundles, which they conveyed upon their heads to the kamatha or sifting floor. In Folk Songs of Lanka, Carlton Samarajiwa states, the kamatha is a holy place in Sinhala society culture: it symbolizes the peak of an entire rural season furrowing the fields, sowing the seed, weeding and transplanting, and procuring the collect. The kamatha and the customs related with the action of sifting the paddy have over the eras gained their very own sacredness. Normally, there are kamath kavi, or sifting melodies, to be joyously su ng: Budun vandina velaavayi Kiri uthurana velaavayi Kola madavana velaavayi Kamatha pirena velaavayi The principal cuttings of rice are a festival. A stately pot of drain is set on a wood fire and permitted to bubble over, in a custom called kiri itirima that symbolizes plenitude. Drain rice is cooked with the grains of the main reap and offered to the Buddha and to the gods, and the rest of shared among those present. Bits of the primary rice are offered to the Buddha and taken in parade to the sanctuaries. It is a valuable minute that joins the land, and its abundance with the diligent work of its kin and their divine beings.