Thursday, February 28, 2019
Wider Professional Practice Part 4 I believe that education should be use commensurate for whole. I feel collapseicularly strongly that those from disadvantaged backgrounds should have the probability to experience learning and thus have the chance to pull in their protest life choices. To work with a learner who realises his / her own worth is, to me, a greater experience than handing them a Maths or English certificate, although this is really rewarding, as easy. So, perchance, the first value that I would put forward would be to support the individual to self develop personally and educationally, giving fortune for self-aw areness and actualisation.This necessitates time, flexibility, encouragement and the ability to motivate not always easy it also needs intrust and mutual respect often a failing cited by learners about doctrine staff, which develop as the race progresses. Following on from this it is important that all have equal opportunity to succeed. Inclusion an d establishing individual needs is important, as is being a good role baby-sit and exerting professional behaviour, thus, embedding standards which allow for support the personal growth of the learner.For some this positive role model allow have been by-passed, but it is also as mentor, coach and counselling where support should be available, if required. These values can help mend smell of life, develop potential and offer purpose to learners but go away also, hopefully, make them productive citizens. Personal development in the student is paralleled in the pedagogue autonomy an important vision for learner and tutor alike To learn, ourselves, from experiences, reflection, military rating and self-investigation is the basis for continuing professional development and enhances us as professionals, trail to a better teacher.It is a teachers responsibility to apply up to date with educational change and subject specialism, as well as technology advances and basic adroitness s English and Maths. This can be attained finished training, keeping up to date with news / current affairs and carry through research on points of interest. Although this is an individuals responsibility, some institutions collaborate to improve systems at my organization we have resources weeks, where we work together to improve and join on materials, and at tutor meetings issues are discussed and development undertaken e. g. tandardization of portfolios. So, good act will be reliant on others, be it peer or white-tie observation, appraisal, sharing of resources, in starchy feedback or support from colleagues, and offers experiences to improve our skills and abilities. As a more seasoned practitioner it is also important to support others, be they new to dogma or purely in need of assistance, ideas or guidance, encouraging them and offering advice if needed in a more formal setting as guide or mentor. This disseminates knowledge and if communicated effectively creates sti ll good practice.Communication is another key. Clarity, empathy, listening skills and confidence all play their part in being a successful teacher. This skill is important when teaching learners but is also necessary when liaising with other staff and team members. To create rapport, a main feature of the communication process, enables better learning and will lead to collaboration, itself a highly sought after value at heart education. As mentioned in my company there is a close relationship between tutors and each will look to team members for support be it resources, paperwork issues or problems with learners.Standard expectations, and therefore values, would be the nuts and bolts of the job responsibility, and would include planning and preparing for lessons, incorporating areas antecedently discussed individual needs, challenges, different styles, methods and tools etc. and learner feedback and assessment important for learners to be able to chart their progress. It is impo rtant to give learners stretching targets, or there is try of demotivation, but too difficult may likewise be displeasing being able to judge the right level is a skill that comes with experience.The values of a teacher should mirror the IfLs code of practice 2008, a document that lays out expected codes of conduct and professionalism. The basic principles are integrity, respect, care, practice, disclosure and responsibility, and are in place for the benefit of learners, employers, the profession and the wider community. Although perhaps somewhat bombastic in approach and full of self-importance the total elements of the IfLs mandate are what we, as influencers of the future, should be straining for instilling morally sound values and judgements into our learners.
at bottom our Jamai footnister schools the advocate counseling mastergrammes argon designed to implement nerve center principles as stated by the Jamai deal school program. focal point counselor-at-laws atomic number 18 the sensations who play the exercise of goodly analyzing and implementing these create by mental acts which ensure that all(prenominal)(a) pupils be strong prep ared to manage these exciting eons all student affects support and counseling. This is imperative as they embark upon the academic, social, spiritual and victimisational challenges of adolescence a time of rapid growth and change.Our guidance and counseling programmes offer students the chance to confine aim these characteristics necessary to create successful adults in a dissolute changing world. The primary goal of guidance and focusing and guidance guidances is to buy the farm and support overall student break inment and well-being in 3 broad celestial spheres of stude nt life while keeping in straits the central tasks of adolescence such as acquiring and assimilating self-k nowledge, developing incoming goals and purposefulness, building strategies to accomplish goals, developing decision-making skills, coping with outcomes of decisions and exploring social kindreds.The guidance advocator is charged with the responsibility of being the one who facilitates confirmative change in the lives of those in their care especially in the three broad areas. These implicate Personal/Social Goals which entails dish uping students acquire the inter personal and intercourse skills to increase their understanding and respect of self and others. Academic Goals, which protagonists students develop a wide range of academic skills and become in force(p) agents of their s backing, Post Secondary-College prep Goals achieved through knowledge sessions and by making resources available to seek and conduct to college, students are able to visualise and denounce decisions about their future. toilette is a fifteen year old student who has recently returned to Jamaica to live with his father. fundament had left Jamaica at an early age to live with his mother in the Cayman Island. She is now incarcerated in the Cayman Island and so he now has to live with his father.John is having serious problems in school and at home. He has been get very low grades in break and is sometimes very contemptuous to his t all(prenominal)ers especially his female instructors. John in any case finds it hard to adjust and to make new friends he resents the woman with whom his father now lives and is now secrecy from school and hanging out at the video arcade. Johns teachers and his father have made arrangements for him to have weekly sessions with the schools counsellor exponent. The bureaus of a centering Counsellor in any Jamai stack school vary.Johns case is just one example of the wide spectrum of psychosocial problems experienced by man y Jamaica students who are in request of guidance and support. The role of a counselor in Johns case is vital to his version to his new situation and with him traffic with the pain of his past experiences. Whatever his exponent does is critical in his survival from his maladjustments. Myric (2003) defines the term role as an baffling one. It generally refers to the part that one plays in a given situation. He merely gives the definition of melt down as the look in which a professional carries out his/her part.Function gives attention to various(a) behaviours that dexterity be performed in the role. pleader and exponent is therefore a necessity in all Jamaican schools. The necessitate of students especially those at the adolescent stage are overwhelming. As postulated by Ma physical bodye (1993) persons at the adolescence stage in life need guidance as they seek to clarify their goals and values, strengthen their interests and aspirations, appreciate their philosophies and apprehension and adjust to the norms of society. Some major roles and functions of the guidance directions according to Gibson et al. 1999) are to grant individual counselor, free radical counselling, work with parents, and consult with teachers and administrators. Guidance directions should identically parcel out classroom guidance instructions and assessment activity and coordinate with companionship agencies. The Ministry of fosterage (2009) outlines the major components that comprise roles and functions as preventative, interventive, supportive administrative and pro professional maturement. In order to alleviate Jamaican students make the novelty from nipperhood to adulthood, the guidance advocators role is integral in this quest towards the holistic cultivation of these students.How important are these roles and functions in the development of our children, our future? This essay seeks to outline the major roles and functions of a guidance advocator in o ur Jamaica school setting and also to examine some of the factors which negatively impact the guidance counsellor in his or her quest towards fulfilling these roles. As a guidance counsellor the implementation of all the components geared towards the holistic development of students must be considered and enforced. These should be current and emphasis should be placed on classroom guidance as well as pigeonholing and individual counselling.Ministry of Education (2009) coined preventive measures as proactive initiatives implemented to deter the onset of individual and group problems. These measures and strategies bequeath supply students and others the opportunities to name skills of conflict resolution and reduction. Guidance Counsellors are able to dish in the be afterning, implementing and coordinating of orientation designed to help students adjust to new experiences at bottom the school corporation. The preventative components also help guidance counsellors to promote lead storyers development of peer counsellors and shape up participation in familiarity renovation programmes.These programmes also furnish principals and other stakeholders with relevant information concerning students in the various stages of development. As students progress through the variant levels of academic life, they are confront with tremendous problems of deciding and selecting their subjects, courses and career choice. This challenge can be jutting through the professional guidance of the guidance counsellor. The counsellor depart assist the students to make rational decisions toward their life goals.Through career development programmes the Guidance counsellors help bring home the bacon placement services and work experience for the students. Through this kind of programme the counsellor is able to help the students to make the transition from one school level to another or from school to employment, in this way students are better(p) prepared and equipped wit h skills necessary for the world of work. The guidance counsellor also assists students who although they have been exposed to the options and guidance in a group setting, have not made up their minds as to which area they would like to pursue.These students are ordinarily assisted on an individual basis. another(prenominal) major role and function of the guidance counsellor involves individual counselling of students. Gibson (1999) defines individual counselling as one-to-one relationship involving a develop counsellor that foc exercises on some aspects of the clients adjustment, development, or decision making. This process can therefore help a counsellor develop a close personal relationship and communication base with the student. As such the guidance counsellor in the school can help tudents to develop understanding of self as it rivals to their social and psychological world. Students can also be assisted in exploring possibilities relating to their lives and also understa nding how to broach change in their lives. Through individual counselling students bequeath elaboration a better sense of confidence in the counsellor and will no doubt be more(prenominal) comfortable in discussing and dealing with issues presented. With individual counselling the opportunity is there for them to speak freely without the charge that whitethorn exist in a group setting.For a student such as John an individual session will help him to deal with underlying issues which have created his bitterness and anger. He would be better able to cope with all the changes with which he is faced. Such an individual counselling session would allow him the framework on which to maximize his true dominance and understand his world in order to impact positive change. Saginak (2003) provides spare insights into how effective counsellors can help identify students of multiple intelligences.This finding can help a counsellor care for the different needs of students. For example, the use of journal writing, art, music and poetry has been advocated for many years as effective ways with counselling students. Individual counselling is radicalally a consecutive process as the counsellor seeks to build a relationship with each student he or she comes in contact with. Individual counselling by a guidance counsellor is sometimes the only heart of providing some kind of hope for some children. Hence, the counsellor should ensure that a harmonious relationship is built.Although some students are confident to go to a counsellors office after being referred by their teacher, parents or peer, some may be reluctant as such, group sessions will help to cater to the needs of these students. The importance of group counselling (small group, self-aggrandising group) and guidance in schools cannot be overemphasized. According to Johnson (2000), group counselling involves dickens or more individuals in face-to-face interactions, each aware of positive interdependence as the y strive to achieve mutual goal.Myrick (2003) adds value to what Johnson (2000) tell that group counselling in school is a unique educational experience in which students can work together to explore their ideas, attitudes, earningslings and demeanour especially as it relates to personal development and progress in school. For some students this might be the only disturbance experience in eruditeness about themselves, others, life task and how to deal with certain confidential issues. It is wee-wee that group counselling helps students to share common interest and concerns.Students like to recognise that other students are having similar experiences as they are having. Groups are important as students are better able to support each other as they struggle together. As such, students are better able to relate to each other in their social contexts. Improvise the opportunity for students for students to learn and live with each other as a team. Gladding (2009), states that stu dents participating in a group develop social relationships and emotional bonds and often become enlightened.Research has also shown Flemming (1999) that group counselling is more effective than individual counselling to address the need of students, especially at risk students. He further asserts that this contention is supported through research into violent youths, which suggests that peer group interventions are effective in redirecting peer values, confronting antisocial behavior, teaching problem-solving skills and boost pro-social behavior. Dollarhide et al (2003) opines that students in group counselling allow counsellors to expand their consciousness of student client.What better way to see how students react in their systems than to informant it first-hand. In essence group counselling in Jamaican schools provide both students and guidance counsellors with a more comprehensive knowledge of what students are faced with on a daily basis, issues can be dealt with and stude nts detain to focus on their goals. As in Johns case, he may not be responsive in a group setting as well as he might be timid or embarrassed to tell his story. Although group counselling can be beneficiary to many students, it has its down side.The nature of group settings can at times bring out complex and sensitive issues which might require counsellors to speak to teachers and parents to better aid students in this process, hence the need for consultation. Saginak (2003),defines consultation as a three part helping relationship characterized by confidentiality, mutual respect and collegiality, focused on helping the consulted function more effectively with the client. Saginak further states that consultation provides a systematic intervention allowing counsellors to reach into students context and mobilize other persons in the students support network.In the consultation process the Guidance Counsellor can maximize the opportunity to educate the teachers, parents and community on the developmental issues that students are faced with this level of consultation is vital in Jamaican schools as it provides stakeholders with the assurance in dealing with the issues which may arise with their children. Parents are better able maximize on their roles as caregivers and confidants. This is as a result of the admission to cooperative relationship with their childs Guidance Counsellor.This enables them to better understand their childs behavior, attitude, relationship and other concerns. In addition, it provides the opportunity for counsellors to consult with parents who are not actively participating in their childs education. In a case like Johns which is similar to many children in Jamaica, the guidance Counsellor would not only help him to deal with his present problems notwithstanding also to develop skills that would allow him to be able to cope with other challenging situations which will inevitably occur throughout his lifetime.His parents would also be en lightened as to how their actions influence his state of mind and behaviour and the steps they can take to help him to live a better life. Parents would also have a closer hand on what exactly is going on in the life of their children and would receive information as to whether or not their child need further help to cope with different situations. Consultation also helps teachers and administrators in dealing with students who are exhibit anti-social or dysfunctional behaviour.It provides the teacher the opportunity to learn the skills necessary to deal with these children who are problematic. Teachers would understand the adjustments of the platform and instructions needed to effect positive change. In his or her role in the Jamaican school system the guidance counsellors also provide consultation to the members of the school community this is deemed necessary as the community is usually the nurturing ground for the members of the school. This in effect filters down to advantage ing the student and the entire community.This also fosters a better and more effective communication process betwixt the school and the community. Although not an official role, the guidance counsellor in the Jamaican schools, through community involvement, are often times called upon to lobby for sponsors for different projects these are usually projects undertaken by the counselling department or tribunal for the funding of different project geared towards students development. As stated by Miss Cindy Nemard guidance counsellor at Quest Preparatory, many students benefit from these programmes specially in the public schools where school feeding programmes, school fee payment, sport scholarships, examination fees, uniform to books and other programmes benefit the children based on the collaboration effort of the guidance counsellors and the community members. Miss Nemard further states that this allows the community members through their support of the school a sense of being a p art of the school development and progress. They also get to voice their legal opinion on their hopes and plans for the school and in turn the students.In addition the counsellor gains easier access to engaging families in counselling the process and if necessary collecting information to assist the police, judge or social worker. The overall benefit from community consultation is immeasurable. She further states that when the stakeholders are involved in the childrens development the school environment is more shaped within the community. To maximize on this the guidance counsellor must have a good programme which will be beneficial towards the natural development of the students.Without a plan we have very little hope of achieving the full potential of our dreams and aspirations, similar is the case with a guidance counsellor in achieving his or her objectives. He or she must have a clear idea of the needs of the students and the objectives must be in line with such. The role of the guidance counsellor in this instance is one of being administrator as he or she must not only decide on the objectives precisely plan careful and effective programme to achieve these goals. These goals must be in line with the Ministry of Educations guidelines and at the same time cater for the needs of the stakeholders.These programmes must be infused with the schools curriculum. The counsellor has to maintain records of the process and progress of the guidance programme and all the activities involved, these include career day, orientation of new students, staff and student development seminars, curriculum lessons and consultation time. Myrick (2003) says that a guidance counsellor is like the co-pilot on a plane, responsible for his or her own programme. The question therefore arises what are the particular(prenominal) ways in which a guidance Counsellor leads?The guidance counsellor at all times has to be involved in planning, coordinating, organizing, assessing and evalu ating. The counsellor has to be reliable, impartial and accountable. The guidance counsellor has to be supportive of all stakeholders. Ministry of Education (2010) views supportive as those management activities that establish, maintain and enhance the total guidance and counselling programmes. A full assessment of programmes activities in schools helps the counsellors to plan for future programmes and evaluate to what extent the programme are working or their effectiveness.Ongoing assessment needs to be done for the students to ensure readiness for ongoing learning. As guidance counsellors are seen as helpers who understand and respond to gracious needs however, he or she must be cognisant of his or her needs as well. With the approval of the Ministry of Education and the school boards counsellors must engage in personal and professional development. According to the Ministry of Education the guidance counsellor must attend conferences, workshops, and meeting.These include those a t the Jamaica Association of Guidance Counsellors in Education (JAGCE), the Guidance direction Unit and other organizations not especial(a) fifteen sessions per year. As the guidance counsellors acquire these skills and knowledge he or she must demonstrate knowledge of the law and policies as it relates to education, guidance and counselling, children and adolescent. The counsellor must also abide by the Education act (1980) and the work out of National Ethics of the Jamaica Association of JAGCE Ministry (2009).Being a proactive, knowledgeable individual, a guidance counsellor has to keep up to date with the required skills and knowledge in order to be a competent and effective counsellor. Although the guidance counsellors are reaping some success in schools, they are faced with existing challenges which affects the effective performance of their daily tasks. Myrick (2003) deals that the individual counselling is becoming a prodigality in schools. It cannot be provided for everyo ne. He further states that some students need this more than others be drift of the nature of their concerns and their inability to work with groups.In essence, counsellors face limitations to effectively cater to every student. Counsellors do not have enough time to see all. Guidance counsellors are also seen as coordinators of many activities and programmes within the school setting. They are responsible for a number of administrative work involving students, teachers, parents and all the stakeholders involved. This role in itself impedes the speed and progress of other important roles. It may lead to an overworked counsellor and an unbalanced counselling programme.Myrick (2003), points out that the coordinating functions of can be a millstone round a counsellors neck, or it can lead to some productive outcomes in guidance. Counsellors are seen as teachers with flexible time and so at times there is give the sack for the structured plans and routine of a guidance counsellor as he or she is often called up onto fill in as a substitute teacher in the absence of a regular class teacher. Another problem that counsellors face is that of the increase in the violence in the society which is then mirrored in the Jamaican schools. Counsellors are particular to their jobs as it is often difficult for them to gain access to the root cause of the problems involving violence in the schools.Students who are exposed to violence in their communities may begin to adapt to this kind of life experience and sometimes may even accept violence as the norm. Although the guidance counsellors use their initiatives to encourage students in situations like these at times their efforts seem to go neglected The limitations and challenges also extend to the lack of or insufficient resources in schools. For the counselling process to be effective the counsellor should be provided with certain basic essentials such as a comfortable counselling area in which to practice.Counsellors are s ometimes hesitant to pursue difficult cases involving students especially as it relates to criminal offences. Counsellors are often apprehensive of the repercussions which may arise when reports are made against persons who commit crimes against children. With the inadequacy of our legal system, counsellors sometimes have to think of the safety and well being of themselves and their families. The roles and functions of a guidance counsellor are many and varied and sometimes extend to areas undefined however as a guidance counsellor one must ensure that his or her role is carried out comprehensively and effectively.All the roles mentioned are specific to all counsellors but may vary depending on the type of school. The finding in this research outlines and gives definite answers relating to some roles and functions of the guidance counsellor within the Jamaican schools. The roles set include providing education counselling, career counselling, consultation, classroom instruction, in dividual and group counselling. It can be concluded that the role of the guidance counsellor is important for the go along development of the students in our school and in effect the continued development of our Jamaican society.Reference Gladding,T. (2009). A comprehensive Profession. New Jersey Gibson, L. (1999). Introduction to Counselling and Guidance. United States of America Prentice Hall Inc. Mankind, O (1993). Fundamentals of Guidance and Counselling London Oxford Mack Millan Education Myrick, D (2003). Development Guidance and Counselling A Practical Approach. 4th Edition. United States of America Education Media Corporation. Ministry of Education Guidance Counselling Unit
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
Cultural Differences In geometricalal scholarships The study chosen is called Cultural Differences in the Perception of Geometric Illusions. The research specifically focuse on the psychological processes of depth intelligence and visual scene. The first example is the Muller-Lyer illusion which is an optical illusion consisting of stylize arrows in which viewers tend to perceive one as thirster than the other.The second example used is the Sanders Parallelogram in which a diagonal linage bisecting the larger, left-hand parallelogram appears to be slightly longer than the diagonal line bisecting the smaller, right field parallelogram, but it is in fact the same duration. The last example used in the stimulus is the horizontal- straight illusion, in which observers have the tendency to perceive the vertical as longer than a horizontal line of the same length when the lines ar perpendicular.All of these relate to how a subject is able to understand the spacial qualities. The r esearchers hypothesize that the pagan differences between the people tested affect their erudition of the lines. The researchers dispersed the tests to 14 non-European countries including those in Africa, Philippines, and America. All in all this amounted to 1,878 samples. The differences in these cultures can change from those of habitat, where some whitethorn be living in a dense, urban environment to those who live in rural land.Language may withal affect how one may perceive their surroundings, another factor that differs between the test samples is the school of thought between different cultures. The go away of the research showed that on both the Muller-Lyer and Sanders Parallelograms the European and American samples made importantly more illusion-produced responses than did the non-European samples. On the two horizontal-vertical illusions, the European and American samples had relatively depression scores, with many of the non-Western samples scoring significantly hig her.All samples appeared to be minimally susceptible to the perspective drawing. These findings point to cross-cultural differences that perhaps can be attributed to ecological and cultural factors in the environment. For example, in the study they provide an explanation for the factor of spatial perception, they believe that if one were to live in a highly alter community, in which there is a high prevalence of rectangles, then the subjects are more inclined to interpret two dimensional cute and faint angles as representative of rectangles in three dimension drawings. This can also be the opposite, if one were to grow up in the countryside where they are capable to large horizontal vistas, then their perceptions would change. Works Cited Segall, Marshall, Donald T. Campbell, Melville J. Herskovits. Cultural Differences in the Perception of Geometric Illusions. Science, New Series, Vol. 139, No. 3556 (Feb. 22, 1963), pp. 769-771
Having a anxious(p) child changes a familys manner. A father result do anything she possibly drive issue to aid this child. Likewise, the rest of the family will mystify to commit in determine for their siblings well(p) being. During and after a situation desire this, sustenance for the family will non be the same. In the plastic film, My Sisters steward, directed by Nick Cassavetes, a happily married orthodontic braces with two children anticipate their life normally and joyfully until the day they get through that their two year old lady friend, Kate, had leukemia and would non blistering past times the duration of five.In the word picture Sofia Vassilieva plays the role of Kate, the dying girl, whose illness would not let her live past the five. Neither Kates parents or brother were a rack up with her and thus could not donate anything to aid her with her terminating disease. The parents decided to produce a one hundred percent in vitro child so he/she could give Kate what she needed osmium marrow, blood donations, and stem cells. Cameron Diaz, Sara Fitzgerald, the mother, together with Jason Patric, Brian Fitzgerald, the husband, hold to have a corrupt do in a dish up to be spare parts for Kate.(Breslin)And as soon as their baby was born, they would summit her into numerous surgeries so she could donate what ever Kate needed to live. To me this was a great attention grabber for the movie because it gave the game originality. The in vitro child, Abigail Breslin, Anna Fitzgerald, was twelve and she introduced the movie speaking of how she was only made to aid her dying sister. She was the perfect in vitro child who would be Kates genetic savior. (Breslin) Ever since she was a newborn she was summited to numerous operations because of the different needs Kate had.Now that she is twelve, Anna files a lawsuit against her parents scatty to be medically emancipated, to have the powerfuls to her own body. She claims she wants to live her life as a regular twelve year old girl without having restrictions in her daily constituteivities. Later in the movie however, the audience comes to find that Kate had genuinely pleaded Anna into filing the lawsuit. Kate does this because she had no desire of living anymore, she wants the raiseing to end, and the fighting in her family to end.Kate wanted Anna to be free from the surgeries, she wanted to be at serenity and she wanted to free her family from further suffering. Cassavetes directed and created an excellent tear respite movie yet he failed to properly construct and revise Sara Fitzgeralds role. Sara was portrayed as a loving mother, alone to a point, her spirit was a selfish. Her main concern since the movie began was her daughter Kates well being and was not going to let her die. (Diaz) Sara became a mother in general interested in making Kate live and thereby forgot her role as a mother not only to Kate but to Anna and her oldest son Jesse.Sara had the st ainless family dedicated to watching over Kate and her needs. This made Jesse feel ignored and would forever flee home and Anna grew feeling unloved. When Sara received the papers of the lawsuit, she became infuriated and slapped Anna crossways the face. This action of hitting her child demonstrated how Sara simply disregards Annas purview because listening to Annas desires meant letting Kate die and she was not going to pull up stakes that. Sara would rather have Anna feeling miserable with her life than to watch Kate die.Shegave up her holy life to watch over Kates health and she was not going to let anyone or anything ruin her twelve year meshing. On the other hand, Brians role in the movie served mainly to support his children. Although he struggled the same battle of keeping Kate alive with Sara, his grapheme understand and stood beside what his children needed. He let Sara take over for twelve years but when the lawsuit came he dumb Annas point and stood beside her. Personally I loved when he took Kate to the beach because she wanted to see it before dying.He took her raze if it meant having an argument with his wife which could lead to getting a divorce. Brian wanted to fall in sure that his daughter had what she wanted in her last few moments of life. facial expression at Roger Eberts professional movie criticism and review of the movie My Sisters Keeper, he stated that the movie is an immediate audience-grabber. He maintains that the movie is good because of the plot itself. A girl who is twelve was made so she could be spare parts for her dying sister.However, he does appoint that the movie is subject to different interpretations to the viewers because some may conform to on the lawsuit Anna placed on her parents and others may disagree. The audiences opinion is controversial depending on their standing point. If a person favors life then he or she would disagree with Annas point because if she medically emancipates and decides not to continue to donate to her sister, Kate would die. Others who favor choice, agree with the lawsuit because Anna has a life of her own and she must pursue and live it.Ebert feels Anna is right to have gone to the lawyer, Alec Baldwin, who proves 90% accuracy on his trials because she is being independent and an winner of what she believes is subdue. He also feels that Anna has been through enough ever since she was born. She has donated her sister blood, bone marrow, and stem cells and has had to undergo several surgeries and stays at the hospital because of these operations. Ebert discusses the cut down that Anna should not give away her kidney to her sister because this would limit her physical activities.She will not be able to enjoy her childhood, her teenage years and legion(predicate) other activities she should be experiencing as a teen and even as she grows older. Ebert also discusses how Taylor, Kates dying boyfriend, gives My Sisters Keeper its go around element becaus e he makes the movie tender, tactful and very touching. (Ebert) His opinion active the appearance of this boy in the movie was to distract the audience from the entire discussion and constant fighting of the Fitzgerald family over the lawsuit. Taylor allows the audience to see that Kate in spite of her terminating disease was able to live a life ilk any other teenager.With this romance, Cassavetes diverted the movie aside from the tragic family disputes and off it into a romantic love story between Kate and Taylor, and what they got to live for a while. This romance gave the movie more realism, Ebert stated. Regarding Diazs role as the mother, Ebert believed that her character demonstrated her fierceness in wanting to solve and win a fibre in her private life. Since she was a successful lawyer and win most(prenominal) of her cases while in practice, she now sees Kates disease as a case she must win as well.Since Sara won cases most of the time, she now feels she must fight to keep Kate alive. This is her most intense case and she has won it for twelve years by having kept Kate alive past her expected death at five. Ebert agrees with the role of Sara Fitzgerald. Both my opinion and Eberts agree on many factors of the movie My Sisters Keeper yet we disagree on one point. We both conceive of that it was a great movie with an excellent plot and attention hook. The idea of having parents make and create a perfect match for their dying daughter was by all odds a grabber.We believe that Anna has suffered her entire life and she now has the right to live her own life and enjoy being a kid. We feel she should not be worried of limiting her activities for the sake of helping her dying sister. For these reasons Ebert and I agree on the fact that Anna has the right to her medical emancipation, so she could have the right to her own body. Ebert and I also concord when we say that Annas family is near perfect and that the only disfunction in it is Kates disease. The disease was not only killing her, but it was killing her family as well.Beneath the exterior there were cracks and resentments (Patric) that threatened the well being of the Fitzgerald family. The constant fighting between Brian and Sara, Jesse feeling ignored, and most importantly Anna having gone to a lawyer and having sued her parents portrays the family disfunction. The fact the Sara disregarded everyones opinion and did what she thought was correct without anyone elses opinion, led the family to slowly break. We think that Brians role as the father, served mainly as a mediator.He was in the middle of every battle at home and he was constantly overruled by his wife. He had no voice in the movie until the end when he confronted Sara and took Kate to the beach with or without Saras approval. All through the movie Brian was more of a supplemental character yet he proved himself after the scene of the beach. Brian defended what he thought was correct and stood by Annas side when s he filed the lawsuit, he understood her point and could not believe he had let his daughter suffer so much for the past twelve years.Overall Ebert and I believe he had a fairly good role but his character stood out towards the end of the movie. In the role of Sara, Ebert and I disagree as to what we think Cassavetes wanted her to represent. To me Saras role and character in the movie, made her be disliked by the audience. She was set as a person who did not care about her husband, as a person who did not brand her son, and in a way she despised Anna for wanting to have the right to her body and stop being Kates savior. I felt she was a selfish mother who only cared about Kates life and no one elses.Ebert believed that Diazs role was her merely wanting to save her daughter Kate at all possible cost. He felt Sara viewed this battle as another win in her life, but this win was not in her professional life but in her private one. He thinks that this was a good touch in the movie to hav e portrayed the mother so involved and dedicated into saving her daughters life because it gave the movie a sense of reality and portraying how women would actually act in this situation. The movie My Sisters Keeper, reflects the life of a influence family and how a death sentence slowly split the family members apart.Roger Ebert in his retrospect for this movie highlighted major aspects which I myself thought of when watching the movie. The idea of having an in vitro child be subject to various operations to aid her dying sister, made the movie so intriguing and different from many others. The plot of this movie was unexpected and completely unpredictable. Overall the movie was great because it excelled in every aspect and most certainly because it was emotionally appealing to its viewers. I give the movie My Sisters Keeper directed by Nick Cassavetes, thumbs up.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
During the summer I met up with Harinder to start create our website and to get an idea of what it would include and look like. We decided to use the class Dream Weaver since it was more flexible comp bed to word or Front knave and it had some features that we could use for our website, such as different fannygrounds and texts. Dream weaver enabled us to use Flash MX which has much more effective artistic production which we couldnt get on Front Page such as the flash onlytons and 3-d backgrounds all to make our website suit the Sc-Fi theme.We targeted our audience straight off by choosing the theme science Fiction which appeals to teen and young mature males. We kept the audience involved furthermore by the type of terminology we chose to use which wasnt in like manner complicated yet non too patronising. The set up of the page was kept colourful, yet formal, by not having the hyperlinks and pictures all over the page. It would therefore appeal to the younger and older contemporariess of our audience.We too targeted the audience by adding more features to our website like voting and a guest book so they feel welcome and give feed back on what they thought of our website. The strengths and failinges of our production be fairly clear. Some of the strengths are that it appeals to a wide chain of mountains of audiences which means that more people are attracted to our website and it would be popular. Another strength would be the different kinds of features that make up our website, from the different types of flash buttons to the backgrounds, wallpapers and pictures.The weaknesses of our website include the appearance of the homepage it looks too cluttered at the top then too empty at the bottom. The colours usurpt match especially with the different coloured buttons. Another weakness would be that on a page like the picture page all of the links are down on one incline of the page and the rest of the page looks empty. We could have avoided th is problem by displace more pictures and links on the page. One more weakness I could pick out would probably be that it takes quite a want time to load up the site.This could be put down to the detail that there is a lot of links and features on our webpage which slows down the association and makes it harder for the computer to find the proxy settings. The responses from our target audience were good. We asked people amid the ages of 15-30 years of age what they thought of our website. We got some good responses especially from the younger members of our audiences, such as the layout of the website and the features is good quality. They did offer some improvements, such as it required more information put into the site.The point came up again that the home page was too cluttered and looked over crowded. The older generation of our audience also thought the site was very effective. Some proposed improvements were that we needed to take more care when writing the movie review s since there was a lot of spelling mistakes. Also that some of the other pages seemed empty with hardly a few links on them. It was proposed we should have either not make a links page for the pictures page or made more links and pictures.Another improvement suggested that we should have made our website withal more formal if we wanted to aim at a wider range of 25 year olds upward, by not having the colourful buttons or backgrounds but having them black and white. I feel I learnt that we needed to have deadlines among ourselves to get certain things finished and then move on to the bordering thing instead of going back and finishing off pictures or reviews. You need to have people in your group that you can depone on to have work finished and handed in.Appendix1. Google look to Engine2. Science Fiction Websites-* Sci-fi.com* Sciencefic.com* Science Fiction Movie Reviews Pages* Science Fiction Picture Pages3. Ask- Search Engine4. Lycos- Search Engine
Shelby Bradley The idea of a brand clean world across the ocean sparked interest in many europiumans. They maxim it as an opportunity to get rich quick and benefit immensely. The issue they didnt see was the presence of the homegrown Americans who were already on the land. The Europeans sailed into northern America and immediately started excluding the Indians and taking their land. This caused many conflicts between the two groups, peculiarly in the vernal England and Spanish S disclosehwest region and during the 1600s. In 1620, the inaugural New England settlement was founded. It was at a site called Plymouth Rock and was the place of the Mayflower Compact.At first the colonists had lots of trouble figuring out how to grow crops and hunt and basically survive in this new world. The topical anesthetic Native Americans showed them how to farm and hunt and soon the colonization prospered. Its concentrated to understand why so many conflicts occurred when clearly the Nativ e Americans werent fighting our arrival. The colony was doing so well that other people from Europe saw opportunity and starting moving to New England. Soon the colony was overcrowded and the colonists started taking the Indians land. They also hunted too much, spread their diseases to the Indians, and also well-tried to convert them to Christianity.The Indians did not take this lightly. They started to fight back. For example, they killed Anne Hutchinson and her family. The Europeans greed was the root of these conflicts and the Native Americans response didnt help their relationship either. interim there were also problems in the Spanish Southwest. By the 1600s most(prenominal) of South and Central America were occupied by Europeans, so the Spanish started heading north. The Spanish immediately killed and enslaved any Indians that they ran into. By the time they reached New Mexico, slavery was in full swing and they were trying to convert the Indians to Christianity as well.
Monday, February 25, 2019
Mahou Factory Visit Mahou is a Spanish brewery house founded in the year 1890, in the capital Madrid. The social club created a reputation for it self that precedes it even now a days, for its quality of outturn and the traditionalism of the labor. Today the social club is among the largest and most powerful brewery in Spain with a dominant market share. The main brewery factory, being the one we visited, is located in the outskirts of Madrid, Alovera Guadalajara to be more specific. The Factory is the biggest in Spain and second biggest in Europe, it is whimsical in Europe for its complex automatized mathematical process and innovative technology.The factory produces up to 4 million liters of beer a DAY. Trough out our visit we could stick to the process of production of the beer, most being completely automatized, yet having call workers in key locations were mistakes cannot occur. Even the most efficient machines can come to mistakes, the problem is that the problem wont be spotted it since its and automatized process accordingly you need the scientist and key workers in place to reassure the smoothness of the process. This could be considered a poki oki in Japanese terms or a aegis measure for the avoidance of problems in the production process.From the beginning we could retrieve a complex system practically runed by computers, the only un automatized process is the lab and examination of samples. But in order to alimentation operate on of quality, its a process that need to be done with detail and personal, to keep better control of quality even if the constitute for it might be high. This with the large control means constantly observing and controlling the create from raw stuff process day and night, 24/7, 365 days a year, make it a supper efficient machine for quality control and cost control.The control room has constant machines and computers controlling the brewing process from start to end including the bottling and packaging, Th is is therefore combines with a couple of professionals constantly examining and managing the process of production with constant control the like sample taking to ensure that the quality and process is passing game to perfection. With this, we can surely say we are of to a good start. go on on with the quality control process we then have once once more several controls to ensure quality, like exporting the water from the erfect mineralization from Guadalajara, like exporting the main resources needed to ensure that their customer gets the quality expected always. afterwardswards the brewing process there are several other controls like the bottle revision that ensures that they are clean, then theres another(prenominal) machine ensuring that they all have the perfect measurements (full) with a laser measurer, after wards a few samples are taken from the produced batch of the day to again lastly ensure that the quality is the desired one.Furthermore we can also observe the cost efficiency process in place. Even though the machinery employ is expensive in the long term it cuts cost by great amounts ensuring less mistakes higher quality and happier customers. The control room cuts cost by having many less workers doing the control process over the brewing production process by having it all automatized, not figuring how more efficient it is.Then they cut cost by implementing this brewing tanks outside the factory were its easier to make the liquid in bigger quantities. But, by a long grab the most efficient cost cutting control is the logistics the factory reinforced right next to the high way to have a fond and easy way to transport and move things. Also they have deals with three-fold other breweries to bottle their bear were they do not have a factory in order to make it seemingly less costly and easier to distribute their product.Lastly, I will talk about their green furbish up on the world, or ecological controls. Now days every company is striving to be a leader as social accountable and environmentally friendly. Every company ahs its motives for this, some marketing technique, others tax benefits or company reputation etc. Whats very admirable of Mahous environmental help to the world is that it not only gives good company reputation, tax, etc, its that it is cost reducing also making it cost efficient.Mahous recycles 90 % or more in some cases, of their bottles and containers, due to a deal constituted with the distributor and maker of the beer containers. This is extremely efficient and green for the environment counting the huge amount of production and trash they are avoiding creating. With both eh process distinguishing the broken or defect bottles and the un-cleanable they have created a perfect quality, cost and environmental friendly control all in one, keeping to its call down and reputation.
On May 2, 2012, the National football League addled nonp atomic number 18il of its elite players to felo-de-se Junior Seau. Seau played for the Chargers, Dolphins, and the Patriots during his professional football plot of ground plucky career and was a 12-time Pro Bowler be prow retiring in 2009. Three years after his retirement however, Seau committed suicide by shooting himself in the chest with a gun. This greatly shocked the football world and its image of Junior Seau as a person, but it shortly realized the cause for his action. Shortly after Seaus death, researchers examined Seaus promontoryer and undercoat that it contained a distemper knget as chronic traumatic encephalopathy which is formed by repeated blows to the chieftain a real common disease among fountain football players (Football Brains). The Seau family then filed a practice against the NFL claiming that the confederacy held back randomness from the players virtually the danger of continuous blow s to the head (Seaus final stage on Brain Injuries). Since the formation of the National Football League in 1920, the popularity of the sport has prominent tremendously over the years. It seems at present that much and more people are getting interested in the NFL, whether it is talking about their favorite team at work or at school or watching them play on game day. However, on the flip side of all the amazing catches and touchd admits, there is a dark side to the NFL cognise as the lash problem.This problem has grown so much over the years that there render been more than 4200 lawsuits by former and current players against the NFL stating that the NFL has been trying to cover up the deadly gigantic term effects of concussions and also relied on NFL doctors to feed them the breeding they wanted to hear while rejecting the studies make by researches showing the yearn term effects concussions have on the hit (Junior Seaus Death Keeps Spotlight on Brain Injuries). In orde r for the NFL to keep stentorian the way it is right now, the league had to reject the information shown by researchers which showed the disadvantageous effects of concussions in the long run and instead had to hire their own doctors to say that concussions are minor and cause no detrimental long run effects. I believe that repetitive concussions do cause health problems in the future for NFL players and that the NFL covered up the truth about concussions. world that I watch the NFL regularly, it seems like it is al approximately guaranteed that at least one or more players will experience a concussion during the game with all the physical contact taking place. Some of the concussions these players experience are obvious in that they are transactionless on the ground and nearly are not so obvious in that they are lighten able to make it to the bench. check to Jennifer Car of BrainFacts.org, a concussion is caused when the head is struck violently which then leads to a brief d isruption in encephalon activity. When the head is struck suddenly, the brain is set in motion and bangs the skulls rough and ragged inside which causes the brain cells to stretch and sometimes even split (Mild Brain Injury and disaster).Michael Collins, a clinical psychologist at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center who specializes in sports-related concussions, states that a concussion is basically an muscularity crisis to the brain cells and he also states that the brain has to work much harder to answer tasks (Hard Knocks The skill of Concussions). This disruption posterior cause an individual to experience a variety of different symptoms in the pursuance minutes and hours. The range of symptoms includes the following nausea, vomiting, brief loss of consciousness, and dizziness (Hard Knocks The attainment of Concussions). Later symptoms include lightheadedness, depression, anxiety, sonority in the ears, constant migraine headaches, and poor concentration or help (Mild Brain Injury and Concussion).The symptoms mentioned in the previous paragraph may death a couple days to a few weeks at most a few months. Those who experience these types of symptoms usually receive a concussion maybe once or twice in their lifetimes. However, those professional athletes competing in sports with a good deal of physical contact are in harms way of experiencing quintuple concussions during their career as an athlete. According to recent research, scientists have discovered a neurodegenerative disease also known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy or CTE (Hard Knocks The Science of Concussions). This disease was found in the brains of former athletes who have died mainly boxers and football players (What is CTE?). These athletes were those whohave received continuous concussions or played in positions where they were endangered to experience a good amount of physical impact (Hard Knocks The Science of Concussions). The repeated banging of the brain against t he skull causes a gradual degeneration of the brain tissue, and also the forming of an unusual protein known as tau (What is CTE?). These activities in the brain can take place months or even years after the get concussion or retirement from the sport. Some of the symptoms associated with CTE include memory loss, confusion, depression, aggression, hindered judgment, and craziness (What is CTE?).There is definitely state of the symptoms of CTE among former NFL players. There are many another(prenominal) examples of former NFL players who have suffered from CTE and have killed themselves and/or those around them including the Junior Seau suicide event that was mentioned in the opening paragraph. The first example is John Grimsley, who was a former Houston Oilers linebacker. Grimsley shot himself by accident while he was cleanup spot his gun one day (Football Brains). The former NFL player was a experienced outdoorsman and should have easily performed the task of cleaning his gun . A second example is Justin Strzelczyk, who was a former offensive lineman for the Pittsburgh Steelers. Strzelczyk was involved in a high-speed hit-and-run chase with the police which turned into a fervent crash where he eventually died (Football Brains). Another example is former Canadian professional wrestler Chris Benoit who murdered his wife and child and then took his own life (Football Brains).The final example is Tom McHale, who was a former Tampa quest Buccaneer. He died at the age of 45 from a drug dose (Football Brains). All the brains of these former professional athletes were taken for theater and all their brains were found to contain the brain disease CTE in them (Football Brains). Another study was done on the affects of repeated concussions causing CTE by Ann McKee. According to Ann McKee, who is a neuropathologist at Bedford VA Medical Center, brains of patients with CTE have unique patterns of abnormal protein tangles and cell loss (Hard Knocks The Science of Concussions). Her study analyzed the brains of former athletes and war veterans who have experienced multiple brain injuries. McKees research showed that out of the 85 brains she has studied, 68 of the brains contained the brain disease CTE (Hard Knocks The Science ofConcussions). There is extensive research still organism done by scientists in the area of CTE and if there is a tie-in amongst repeated blows to the head and the formation of CTE in the brain. In situation the National Football League has unflinching to donate $30 cardinal to the National Institutes of Healths Neurology Institute to help foster studies on concussions among football players and military troops (NFL Donates $30 Million To Concussion Research).More and more research and evidence on concussions is being brought to the fore front, as well as the numerous tragedies that occurred among former NFL players stemming from repeated concussions. Because of this, the NFL league and the NFL Mild traumatic Brain Injury delegation secretly decided to cover up and put down all the extensive studies and findings that have been recently popping up by scientists outside the NFL. In the phosphate buffer solution TV documentary League of Denial, the NFL is portrayed as a covetous money-driven industry that would do anything to keep the league from falling apart, even to the design of withholding information from players about the long-term consequences from repeated blows to the head. In this film, the smudge is cast on Dr. Bennett Omalu who was the first scientist to discover CTE (NFL Concussion Cover-up). His findings of CTE came from the brains of former Pittsburgh Steeler Mike Webster and his teammate Terry Long. Dr. Omalus findings were tremendously influential because it was the brightness for the connection between repetitive blows to the head and CTE. However, as Dr. Omalu began publishing his findings about CTE in the brains of Webster and Long, the NFL soon noticed his findings and took action.Dr. Omalu recalled a conversion he had with a NFL doctor in which the NFL doctor said, Dr. Omalu, do you know the consequences of what you are doing? If 10 percent of mothers in America started to view football as a dangerous sport, it would be the end of football (NFL Concussion Cover-up). This simply shows that NFL doctors realize that the findings between multiple concussions and CTE are true, but they are loth to admit to it because they are afraid that the NFL will dissolve into nothing if the truth is discovered. The NFL realized that the league was in jeopardy so they decided to publically denounce the findings of Dr. Omalu by saying that his work was flawed. However, this was not the only guarantee that the NFL made it trying to putdown the findings from scientists on the connection between repetitive concussions and CTE. In a 2007 meeting with the NFLs Mild Traumatic Brain Injury committee, Julian Bailes who is the top neurosurgeon at the Northshore neurolo gic Institute, displayed several pictures of CTE that was almost certainly caused by frequent concussions.However, the chairman of the committee downplayed all the evidence that was shown to them by Julian Bailes even though the evidence was pretty clear. The Commissioner of the NFL, Roger Goodell, decided that it was best for the league to conduct its own study about concussions. He released the following statements regarding the evidence being shown to the league by outside doctors and researchers, You have to grammatical construction at their entire medical write up. To look at something that is isolated without looking at their entire medical history I think is irresponsible (NFL Covering Up Research?). From respectable this one instance, we can definitely see that the NFL is trying its best to handle the clear-cut evidence about the connection between repetitive concussions and CTE. It seems as though the Commissioner and the head of the NFL Brain Injury committee realize t hat the information and the research that was showed to them was true so they had to make sure it did not disclose out to the players and also to the media.
Sunday, February 24, 2019
George possesses more than fine, admirable qualities in the novel, however on that point is one action he ultimately commits which is evil. Of Georges good qualities, his self lever and evaluate for others are his most emergestanding. He displays all of these qualities m any metres throughout the book, and neer are these qualities contradicted, except in one evil act that George commits.George is a character who has great respect for himself. Often, we stereotype homeless, drifter types such as George as people who sire no concern for personal hygiene, appearance, or even something as simple as a clean beat to sleep. George, however, is a living example that disproves this stereotype. When George and Lenny first arrive on the ranch, George is designate a bed in the bunk signaling. When George proceeds to put his belongings on a shelf near to his bed, he finds a bottle that reads, positively kills lice, roaches, and other scourges,(20). later on George finds this, he res ponds, What the hell kind of bed you heavy(p) us, anyways. We dont want no pants rabbits,(20). This shows that George does care if he has a clean bed to sleep in we sometimes count a person kindred George wouldnt care about this.throughout the novel, George shows his respect for others many times. The character that George respects the most is foreshorten. George never challenged Slims opinion, and recognized that Slims password was law. Not alone George respects Slim, though. It seems everyone on the ranch recognizes Slim as the supreme law. After Slim tells glass over that he thinks the dog should be shot, Candy looked impotently at him Slim, for Slims opinions were law. George similarly has a great respect for Crooks, the Negro lasting buck. When George finds Lenny and Candy in Crooks room, he realizes that Crooks the deals the company, however he knows that, for the good of Crooks, that Candy and Lenny moldiness leave the room. George makes them leave the room becau se he respects Crooks and is trying to do whats top hat for him.In the finale of the novel, George commits one evil, horrendous deed. This deed is killing Lennie. George doesnt just mercifully kill Lennie, though. George executes him, shooting him in the back of the head with a pistol. Lennie must have felt pain, even if it was just for a second. George could have soft fled with Lennie and poisoned him or, better yet, non killed Lennie at all. The grounds on which George killed Lennie are non justifiable. They could have made another attempt at making a stake to buy that break up of property, however George threw this chance away. George also commits a crime on himself, because after Lennie is killed, it substructure be deduced that George will go on to lead an immoral, evil lifestyle, that of the average bucker on the ranch.In this novel, Steinbeck seems to regard all human aspirations as unachievable. He illustrates many characters with distinct dreams in this novel, such as Lennie and George, Candy, and Curleys wife. Each one of these characters has different dreams, besides each dream is incredibly important to them. all(prenominal) of these dreams, though, seem like they will never be fulfilld by the people who dream them.Lennie and Georges dream is perhaps the most important dream the story is just about focused around it. This dream begins with make uping up a stake, which is a sum of money accumulated over a time. Once a stake of around 600 dollars is accumulated, George and Lenny plan to buy a small piece of land, about 10 acres, and move into the house on it. Someday-were gonna bewitch the jack to specifyher and were gonna have a little house and a couple of acres an a cow and some pigs and- An lie in off the fatta the lan, Lennie shouted,(15).George is the one who initially came up with this dream. Initially, George just told Lennie of this dream to lark about him. George, though, never thought this would ever happen. With the incl usion of Candy in the plan, though, George begins to imagine this dream. He still has a feeling that he wont achieve it. From what the novel says, we can conclude that Lennie and George will never achieve this dream, because Lennie is dead. We can also deduce that George will never settle piling and buy some land on his own.Candy has a dream similar to George and Lennies, however he wants a different feeling out of the dream. What Candy is looking for is a sense of security. This is important to someone like Candy, who, having a relatively unstable job, could be fired at any time. Also, Candy is disabled, so he would have a hard time finding another job, especially in a time like the Great Depression. Candy wants to live with Lennie and George so that he can have a secure future, and not have to worry about not having a place to live. When George seems to abandon the dream when he knows Lennie must die, Candy is worried that George wont want to complete the dream without Lennie. Y ou an me can get that little place, cant we, George? You an me can go there an live nice, cant we, George? Cant we?(103). It can be deducedfrom this passage that Candy is having doubts about the dream now, and is worried it will never be achieved.It seems that Curleys wife has the simplest dream of all in the novel. All that she craves is attention. She is so desperate for attention that she will take it from anyone, even Lennie or Crooks, the Negro stable buck. It can be deduced that the reason she married Curley was for the resole purpose of attention, because it is clear that she doesnt have a good deal attraction to him, and he has only a limited amount of attraction to her he treats her more like a prostitute than a wife. When Curlys wife gets lonely, she seeks out anyone for attention, even stooping to the level of getting attention from the stable buck, when he is in his room with Candy and Lennie. She also looks to Lennie for attention when she finds him alone in the barn. This was not an intelligent idea and it resulted in her death. Curlys wife died without ever receiving ample attention from anyone, thus her dream was not achieved.George and Curly are both very similar people. They are both rather small, and both of them could defend themselves if they needed to. They both work on the ranch, and they both, in there own mind, have a lot of power. there are however, many differences between Curly and George. Among these is their personality, self respect, and respect for others.George has a very mellow, calm attitude about things, and never gets out of control. Hes a very controlled person, and would never let his temper get the better of him. Curly, on the other hand, is always looking to pick a fight. Whenever he gets the opportunity, he will challenge someone to a fight. This is partially due to the fact that hes an avid boxer, and its also due to his mentality. He has the classic little guy mentality, always lacking to be able to beat up peopl e, to make up for his size.George has overmuch respect for himself. He shows this in the beginning of the novel, when he finds the lice killer next to the bed. He knows that he deserves a clean bed, because he has much respect for himself. Curly, though, has no respect for himself. Hes always trying to be better than other people, trying to show up people. He has to build himself up to make up for his lack of confidence and respect for himself.George has much respect for others. He respects Slim greatly, and takes Slims word as law. He also respects Crooks, by realizing that its best for Lennie to stay out of his room. George doesnt look for fights because he has respect for people, and isnt willing to stoop to the level of Curly. By punching Lennie just for supposedly express feelings at him, Curly shows that he has no respect for Lennie. If he did, he would not have had any reason to fight him. Curly fought Lenny on grounds of respect he wanted to gain respect from others if he won the fight.
On Tuesday, April 20, 1999, at columbine gamy School come Denver, Colorado, two senior students embarked on a massacre, killing twelve students, whiz teacher, and injuring over twenty more students. The two troubled students then act suicide. It is the fourth deadliest school massacre in United States history. The phrase elephant in the room is used as a metaphor to describe an diaphanous truth that goes unaddressed, or simply ignored. Everyone knows it is there, but no one allow for say what needs to be said, or acknowledge the problem that is in front of them.Gus wagon train Sants, Elephant, is a cinematic response to the 1999 Columbine High School shootings. vanguard Sants open-ended treatment of the Columbine incident is one example of how his notional strategy is able to focus the hearty complexity behind the incident, and stimulate curiosity from the listening. This style of word picture step far past the traditional boundaries to the point, demonstrating that th is is only scratching the surface, suggesting that there is practically more depth than what is shown in plain view.Elephant refuses to adjust to conventional views of possess and effect, and instead weaves an inescapable spell on its audience with its distinctive wide takes, diegetic and non-diegetic sounds, and an interweaving, lifelike narrative social organisation, all contributing to its remarkable visual musical harmony and an everlasting emotional affect on those who witness it. One creative strategy that Van Sant employs throughout the movies entirety is its distinctive, but unique farsighted takes. This unconventional way of filming helps determine the automated teller machine of the film as a whole.Van Sant takes the audience on a confused journey as the camera follows each character around the school. The activity is moved a dogged by the continual course of the camera trailing behind different students as they navigate the school halls, cafeteria, library, and football field. During these long takes, the audience is given the perspective of a passive witness to the implement as it extends unavoidably. As a result, it becomes a check-moving film with a snowballing and powerful impact. As Van Sant puts it, No cutting is better than cutting.A fictitious story isnt as good as something thats more organic(Van Sant). These long scenes argon repeated, but through the eyes of different characters each reveal a new perspective of the scene, which increases the sympathy for these students who have no mind what is coming, but was already revealed to the audience. With these distinctive and earthy long takes, the scenes become preserve in the audiences memory due to what searchs like a first dig experience of the traumatic event.Another key component to this movies inescapable spell that it places on its viewers is the use of diegetic and non-diegetic sounds. Throughout the movie there is always a constant sound, whether it is the echoes of voices in the hallways and locker room, or the sound of Beethoven contend beneath the diegetic sounds. The use of these diegetic sounds help urinate a more realistic perspective for the audiences. As they follow behind each character closely, Van Sant makes sure to add every diminished detail he advise to ensure that the audience gets as raw and as authentic of a view as possible.For example, the group of young girls in the cafeteria or in the locker room, there are no sound affects added, what you see is what you hear, creating a naturalistic atmosphere. As another way to increase the tension, Van Sant strategically places the non-diegetic sound of a piano play classical music to create an ominous mood in the selected scenes. There are only a few scenes at which the piano is played, and it easily goes unnoticed. The sounds of classical music playing beneath the diegetic sounds places the audiences in a dreamlike state, as all they brush off do is sit back and watch as the st ory unfolds.The interweaving and realistic narrative structure of this film helps show the ninefold points of views of this tragedy, giving the audience the ability to become the ideal imaginary observer and feel as close to the real thing as possible. After reviewing the film, Manohla Dargis of the LA time states, Every so often, Van Sant repeats a scene from another perspective, as if he were winding back time, and decelerates the bustling to put the film into slow motion so we screwing pay witness to this heartbreaking animation, to the sprightliness of these children.I think this is why Van Sant made Elephant he wants to honor the lives of the Columbine dead, to remember all the kids in their radiant, burning life. (Dargis). The same scenes are replayed multiple times from different perspectives to show the magnitude of the situation, and just how powerful what is taking place really is. Instead of casting big name actors, Van Sant casts regular high school teenagers, who improvise their dialogue to make it seem as realistic as he could.By keeping this narrative structure away from the glamour and artificiality of classic Hollywood films, Van Sant allows the story to unfold naturally and is able to preserve the films true meaning, which is to focus on the traumatic event that is right in plain view, but yet no one wants to address. Throughout the film, the audience is given an in depth tint at what took place that tragic day. As far as authenticity, this film is as realistic of an interpretation as there can be without dipping into the glamour of Hollywood, and distortion for the sake of a better script.This film is as real as it gets, and it is because of the creative, non-traditional style that Van Sant employs throughout it. There are several different elements that go into creating this film, such as an interweaving narrative structure, or the use of creative and unique shots that help make it extremely impactful. near elements can be seen with the naked eye others require a little bit more intellect. Regardless of whether or not the audience can see why this film is more creative and spell bounding than the next, they at least know something is there like the elephant in the room.
Saturday, February 23, 2019
Reaching slow maturity date is a stage in animation that individuals much hope to be able to pass away. Life starts from the moment of conception and goes on until we all puddle the unavoidable stage of death. Individuals all deal with sprightliness in m any a(prenominal) different ways. An adult that has gone through life completing most(prenominal) of the tasks that he/she wanted to complete can go into the stage of late adulthood generally happy. People in late adulthood often face many health bothers. I have researched three sites that draw the current issues that place significance on late adulthood. Current issues inhabit of slack and suicide, health care issues as well as a surrender in a natural manner and cognitive development. ripe adulthood is generally considered to begin approximately around the age of 65. Erik Erikson suggests that at this time it is important to find meaning and satisfaction in life rather than to frame bitter and disillusioned. That i s, to resolve the conflict of integrity versus despair. It has been estimated that by the year 2030, Americans over 65 will dedicate up 20% of the population. Despite the problems associated with longevity, studies of people in their 70s have shown that growing old is non necessarily synonymous with substantial mental or physical deterioration. many honest-to-god people are happy and engaged in a variety of activities.However, it still remains that according to the American Psychological experience mental picture and suicide are a significant public health issues for older adults. Depression is one of the most common mental disturbs go through by elders, but fortunately it is treatable by a variety of means. before long older adults in the United States succumb to more minor symptoms of depression at a laid-backer and so that of younger adults. Late adults in the Baby Boomer generation seem to be displaying depressivedisorders at a significantly higher rate than previous g roups this trend displays a greater incidence of depression. Depression is not that a prevalent disorder but is also a pervasive problem. Depressed older adults, same younger persons, tend to use health services at high rates, engage in poorer health behaviors, and evidence what is known as plain dis major power. Depression is also associated with suicide. Older adults have the highest rates of suicide of any age group, and this is particularly pronounced among men. Physical changes, people typically reach the peak of their physical strength and endurance during there twenties and then gradually decline. In later adulthood, a variety of physiological changes may occur, including well-nigh degree of atrophy of the brain and a decrease in the rate of neural processes. Bone mass diminishes, especially among women, leading to rig out density disorders such as osteoporosis. Muscles become weaker unless exercise programs are followed. You become less flexible and hair loss occurs in both sexes.As people live longer issues of quality of life take on greater importance. Many older Americans suffer chronic health problems that decide their ability to enjoy their later years. These conditions often lead to serious physical limitations that have a major impact on an individuals ability to live independently.The most common chronic health problem among older adults is arthritis. Nationally, among persons aged 70 or older, 50% of men and 64% of women reported having arthritis (Federal Interagency Forum on Aging Related Statistics, 2000). In Texas, the circumstances is virtually the same 51.3% of persons 65 and older report that they have some form of chronic joint symptoms (Texas Department of Health, 1999). Arthritis can be a crippling and painful disease that makes it difficult for older adults to perform flush the most basic Adult Living Skills. End result is upset of mobility and disability. Adjustment is a part of life. The study of cognitive changes in the older population is complex. Response speeds have been reported to decline some researchers call back that agerelated decrease in working memory is the crucial factor underlying poorer performance by the elderly on cognitive tasks.Intellectual changes in late adulthood , it do not evermore result in reduction of ability. While fluid intelligence (the ability to see and to use patterns and relationships to solve problems) does decline in later years, crystallised intelligence (the ability to use accumulated informationto solve problems and make decisions) has been shown to rise slightly over the entire life span. K. Warner Schaie and Sherry Willis reported that a decline in cognitive performance could be reversed in 40% to 60% of elderly people who were given remedial training. derangement is usually responsible for cognitive defects seen in older people. These disorders, however, occur only in about 15% of people over 65. The leading energise of dementia in the United States is Alzheimers disease, a progressive, eventually bootleg disease that begins with confusion and memory lapses and ends with the loss of ability to care for oneself. beingness able to reach old age is a blessing and a gift. However, it can come with a lot adjustment as life takes it toll. As I have explained late adults can suffer from depression and suicide, health care issues, as well as a decline in physical and cognitive development. As young adults we most afflict to remain physically and mentally tough to slow these effects.
Mercantilism Economic practice common in Europe from the 16th to the 18th century. British and another(prenominal)(a) imperial world powers policy to regulate the economy of their colonies. The policy prohibited the colonies to dish out with other countrys, monopolizing markets and banning the export of gold and silver. Mercantilism demanded that a nation must export much than it imports. Mercantilism was a cause of numerous wars and to a fault the expansion of colonization.William Penn English real state entrepreneur, philosopher and founder of the responsibility of pappa. Penn was natural on October 14th, 1644 and died in July 30th 1718. As a Quaker, he was a supporter of religious freedom and democracy. As a subject of his unlike religious views in England, he was expelled from the church. In 1677, he became maven of the founding fathers of the city of Philadelphia helping in its planning and development.Quakers (Society of Friends) the Quakers lived in the mid(prenomin al) 17th century in England. Many who did not want to delineate the Christian Church because they had different spiritual and religious beliefs formed the group. They believed in their inner light, which they believed to come directly from graven image. In order to abide by their beliefs comfortably Quakers immigrated to America in the 1680s. There they established in Rhode Island and Pennsylvania which tolerated Quakers.Metacom excessively called Metacomet, King Philip, or Philip of Pokanoket, was an intertribal attractor of the Wampanoag and Narraganset. He was born in 1639 and died on the 12th august, 1676. He assumed the position of leader of the clan after his father Massasoit died and his older brother the following year. He became the leader of the Wampanoag in King Philips War against English colonists in New England.Glorious Revolution excessively called the Revolution of 1688, resulted in the overthrow of James II and the assent of his daughter Mary II and her Dutch husband, William III of Orange. later the accession of James II in 1685, his credence to Roman Catholicism alienated the majority of the population. This led William III to successfully invade England with a Dutch fleet and army, which led him to the English throne. The innovation lastingly ended any chance of Catholicism becoming re-established in England.History of American People to 1877Mr. HuggardIroquois and Pueblo Indian Similarities and Differences in the Colonization durationThe Pueblo Indians were the descendants of ancient villagers who had been settled in present day Arizona. After developing their settlements for over three thousand years a come down of these communities occurred probably because of drought. The survivors moved to the south and east and in these areas they progressed as they positive their communities and perfected their techniques of desert farming, irrigation systems to provide water for corn, beans, and cotton. They received the name of Pueblo I ndians by the Spanish because when they arrived, these groups of Native Americans lived in small villages, or pueblos. The Pueblo Indians of the southwest were the head start to be confronted by Europeans and their long lasting invasion. However, around 1680, the Pueblo Indians revolted against the Spanish and they expelled them for rough 12 years.Five main peoples, the Choctaw, Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca, and Onondaga formed the Iroquois. These five groups consolidated the bulky League of Peace, which was created to bring stability to the area. The Iroquois were constantly moving geographically, they were known as being strong in battle and that is why they were one of the some Native Indians who survived the colonial invasion. Beginning in 1609, the Iroquois were labored to engage in war against the French, their Huron allies and other tribes. These wars were mainly the consequence of the battle of commanding the fur trade and land.Pueblo Indian peoples were farmers in t radition, tho as separately of the Pueblo villages were in different demographic areas, the crops that were harvestedwere different. These crops were mostly corn, beans, and squash and these were stored for two or three years depending on the seasons. The Pueblo people hunted deer and antelope in the mountains and in other villages that were closer to the plains they hunted bison. In all Pueblo Indian societies, rabbit was an abundant source of proteins. The Iroquois on the other hand, had some similarities and differences from the Pueblo Indians in the farming and hunting practices. Iroquois people were farmers, fishers, hunters but their main source of fodder was by farming. Just like the Pueblo Indians, the Iroquois most cultivated crops were corn, beans and squash and they were also stored for later consumption. Concerning hunting, the differences are to a greater extent notable. The Iroquois hunted mostly deer but they also sought beavers and muskrats in the winter. As they were located close to the river, they also had improved their ability to catch various types of fish.The Pueblo Indian society was direct in most cases, but differed in some, where in a hardly a(prenominal) villages patrilineal clans existed, and males owned houses and land. Women did most of the farming, while men were in perpetration of the hunting. However, as hunting importance was reduced men also started to set out a role in agriculture. Iroquois and Pueblo Indians role of women in their society, was similar in which they were both matrilineal, that they had the t shoot to cultivate the land, and raise the children. However, in Iroquois society, women had much power, where they could engage to divorce their husband and order him to live the home with his belongings. Women also had the right field to keep the children if a couple separated. The Iroquois established the Great Law of Deganawida, which gave par to both sexes. In their society the women were the ones who e lected the chief of their village and were also the ones who could remove him from his position.The Iroquois had their main prophet, Deganawida, who they thought brought peace to the people. Their beliefs about creation were that in a supernatural way, spirits were integrated into the natural world. Their myth give tongue to that a girl in the spirit world who became pregnant without having conversation had a vision that she had to uproot a tree so she would be able to see the underworld. As she does that, she falls to the natural world. As a result of their belief that the spiritual world was up in the heavens, theIroquois depression let their dead to be eaten by birds but after they get to cremate the corpses so that their souls would go up to the pure, spirit world. In the other hand, according to the Pueblo Indians creation myth, they were guided by their matinee idol and climbed up through a hole in the earth into the sunlight. These people suffered many tragedies and misf ortunes until God guided them to fertile land where they could finally settle down.Pueblo people make ceremonies that took place in underground chamber, where they would practice rituals to repossess diseases or to ask their God for thoroughly weather. They were also devoted to disposition they had rituals where they request nature for fertility and successful hunts and seasons. Just like the Iroquois they both had the myth that God had sent his twin sons to the natural world to create a rest with dualism.The Iroquois people were one of the latest natives to drive had encounters with the Europeans. This gave them way to develop more stable communities successfully. Since the arrival of the Europeans to the Americas, the Iroquois had developed a trading system which helped them accomplish goods which were totally new to them. For example knives and other hunting objects which made them more efficient. They had advanced equipy and tools compared to other tribes but when it came to fighting with the Europeans, their chances were slim. The French had streetwise weaponry like armor made of metal, firearms, while the Iroquois had wooden armor and fought with bows and arrow, and other more traditional weapons. Even though they were known to have been strong in battle, when they had to confront the Europeans and their other Indian tribes, there was other aspect which made their battle even harder, diseases. Europeans had already been fighting against diseases much(prenominal) as smallpox, influenza and others, for which they had developed an immunity to them and also had slipway to cure them. When they finally had contact with each other, these diseases started to spread with the killing bacteria.On the other hand, the Iroquois, who had no knowledge of these diseases nor an immune system that could fight them, encountered themselves with an epidemic die-off of their people. The confrontations with the Europeans changed their ways of life because they had to find other ways to have stable communities.The Pueblo Indians, who had been in contact with the Spanish for a much longer period of time, were phonation of a society in which the Europeans had strong influence. The Spanish had subjugated the natives and forced them to adopt Christianity as their religion. The power of the Spanish was very recognizable when they started to remand and torture Pueblo Indians if they did not follow their rules. Nevertheless, the Spanish introduced farming and hunting techniques which helped the Indian communities grow and develop more rapidly. For three generations, native were oppressed until a leader named Pope organized a revolt against the Spanish. This rebellion was called the Pueblo Revolt. When it happened thousands of Indians linked forces and battled and forced the Spanish out of their territory, which they accomplished. After the expulsion of the Europeans, they restored their religious institutions, beliefs and more importantly establishe d independence of their villages and pueblos.While Iroquois and Pueblo Indian natives had many different views politically, religiously, socially and economically, they were both societies in which nature was devoted and revered. They lived of the land and this attached them to the Earth and its seasons greatly. They were spiritual people who believed that spirits had an important part in their lives and that they lived among them and saw their actions. As a consequence of these views, they intuitively knew how to differentiate the good from the bad, since they were being watched. They had no desire of economic power and their societies were mostly ground on peace and equality, which differentiates significantly from the Europeans who were greedy and immoral. When they encountered with the Europeans their ways of life were adapted forever and introduced a new era in which Christianity had a huge influence and with it other more capitalistic aspects.
Friday, February 22, 2019
Riordan Manufacturing postulate to develop a nominalized method for controlling every node information into one centralized client administration method. The first character of this throw will develop a modified administration image that will include mevery critical elements for example, suggestion of a syllabus in order to execute alterations during the coming year and an explanation of the estimation processes following the implementation of the modifications. The 2nd part of the plan will nominate reference to an exhaustive communication plan for the suggested modifications. A sample message communicating the plan to the company employees is also included. Riordan Manufacturing currently uses a bureaucratic structure based on formal power. This structure is designed with hardened rules and functions on how the business will operate daily. Their systemal chart describes how the organisation is departmentalized by scope of work into functional argonas. Each specializ ed department has a vice president and animal trainers that control their operations.The major vantage of this geek of functional departmentalization is efficiency gained from putting like specialists unneurotic (Robbins & Judge, 2013). The power and governmental structure could affect the employee behavior because all decisions must go up the ladder. For example, if a decision of necessity to be made about how a heart valve machine engages to be updated, the decision must be routed through proper authority, rather than macrocosm handled by the foreman. Another advantage of this structure is that there is direct communication between lower direct managers and their supervisors this provides useful leadership, vision, and communication throughout the ranks in the brass section. The most appropriate and effective organizational structure for Riordan is departmentalization and formalization. With the planned change for a new client information system, structure, organization, and good communication between departmentsis necessary. This form is valuable when an organizations customers are widely distributed geographically and check similar needs based on their location (Robbins & Judge, 2013).Most of the positions in the organizations are standardized, so all(prenominal) employee is placed in the correct department according to his or her abilities. Riordan Manufacturing has a separate department for each product they guess, which is an example of departmentalization. Employees in a departmentalized and formalized organization have set rules to follow and are specialized to their department. Riordan Manufacturing employees are a diverse group that offers solutions in a diverse market. Each member is part of a team where each product made grows their total portfolio. Riordans culture is based on organic growth with innovation, although they are a bureaucratic organization. They are everlastingly aspect for new products to innovate and expand in new a reas without looking to cut costs to gain growth.Their characteristics include ethical standards, innovative, and team building. The somatic culture of Riordan Manufacturing cultivates employee behavior by innovation and risk taking with an stress on team building. Riordan uses good communication and team orientation to cargo hold their employees motivated. Some workers whitethorn become unwilling to cope with modification. Possible reasons may be the lack of hunch forwardledge regarding the modification, comfort, anxiety about being un undisputable, ain private views, line of credit security, pressure from peers, clashes, and lack of confidence. Even though workers are being insubordinate, the administrators are intending to cope with the opposition and assist workers with the modification much efficiently. Administrators may control the modification by impartation it clearly, being straightforward, and acknowledging their worries together while respecting workers. Admin istrators may provide support by meeting promptly in regards to the modifications or by additional coaching.Administrators might place the resistive workers with employees or another company temporarily who are already victimization the modification. This can allow for administrators to make certain they have set just about objectives to ensure the success of the modifications was worthwhile and advantageous. Modifications need constant and continuous timber improvements. During the 12 months, administrators must be sure that the modification they put in place hides to remain effective.Administrators can perform this by assigning reaction teams toareas which are in danger, as well as continue to make contact with their workers via phone, email, direct contact, or memo. Safety precautions will also continue to be managed and improved. Staff and administration attitudes will remain optimistic, involving workers, caring for their views, ideas, and thoughts, move to provide traini ng sessions, set objectives and goals, and encourage inspiration. Administrators may assess deed by monitoring the effectiveness of the modification, organization numbers/sales, and ensuring workers are producing bully results. In case the organization is failing or hasnt seen any growth then they must adjust the modification.Communication PlanThe outstrip way to overcome the resistance to change is timely communication to employees. Managers should have meetings with employees, as necessary to discuss the changes. The reason for the changes should be conveyed in a way so employees will understand the necessity for the changes. Managers also need to make themselves available to address any concerns and to listen to feedback from employees. It is very valuable to listen to their concerns, and address them in a professional and compassionate manner. The manager needs to assert themselves as being calm and professional, while conveying the change and listening to concerns of the em ployees. Along with meetings, regular emails and memos should be sent to all employees to inform them in a formal manner of the changes that need to father place. It may be prudent to appoint a few far-right team members to assist the employees with the new procedures.Some employees should be selected to join the reactionary team to instill a sense of ownership into the changes. If a compose communication method was to be utilized there could be corporal barriers to non-verbal communication. Not being able to see the non-verbal cues, gestures, posture and general soundbox language can make communication little effective. To counter that, our favourite(a) communication channel will be face-to-face to discuss anything that could be considered sensitive in nature. Jargon, abbreviations, and slanged terms for what is considered common items is commonly used in corporations this can cause confusion for some whom may be less familiar. To ensure everyone has a firm grasp on the mess age being relayed, the use of these terms should be minimized in all formal communications.Email and Memo MessageValued Employees of Riordan ManufacturingThe organization decided to apply a client administration method that will permit you to easy monitor our clients. The administration knows that we have put enormous accountability on you to manage client info and wish to provide you with the methods to do this job more efficiently. This info might be more effective when we forestall it in a uniformed style and saved in a convenient location. By applying this method we will be allowing the info to be easily available to all workers and will streamline searching methods. We know that this info, if not saved correctly will get lost, and we dont want to jeopardize the client associations which you have worked so hard to maintain. formalised training will be given to all workers prior to the impel of this method. Our objective is to make sure that you are happy and capable of devel opment the latest program before its put into use. We have created a formalized coaching agenda for following week to make sure everybody has had time to see, work, and know the program. We hope that this may be applied on Monday March 30th, 2015. Administration knows that understanding the latest method is a arduous task, however we believe you will notice the advantage of this latest program. We thank you all for your hard work, persistence, and assistance in this matter. Please contact your contiguous supervisor with any questions or problems.Thank You,Riordan Manufacturing AdministrationConclusionThe document has assisted in developing a modification administration plan for Riordan Manufacturing by deciding formalized and casual power structures of the company and their influence on the result of workers. It has additionally determined suitable company structures for this organization which will help in achieving the modifications. The document has described the companys tra dition by identifying its features, and the possible impact of this tradition on the conduct of workers. Riordan must think about applying the specified modifications which are contained in the modification administration plan, and they must also apply the communication plan that will assist in implementing the modifications effectively.ReferenceRobbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2013). Organizational behavior (15th ed.). Upper load River, NJ Pearson/Prentice Hall.