Thursday, May 16, 2019

An Exploration of the Malay Kompang

AN EXPLORATION OF THE MALAY KOMPANG Name Chan Tsui Sze Dora Matriculation Number U1210644K Seminar Group Time 1330 1530 Seminar Group instructor Cikgu Zubir Assignment Research Paper in Malayanan practice of medicine Date 10 April 2013 Word think 2245 Contents Chapter 1 An Introduction to the Kompang3 1. 1 Features of the Kompang4 1. 2 Features of Kompang harmony4 1. 3 Performance Context6 Chapter 2 Influences on the Malay Kompang 7 2. 1 Arabic Influences7 2. 2 Lusitanian Influences9 2. 3 Tai Influences11 2. 4 African Influences12Chapter 3 Future Changes in the Malay Kompang14 3. 1 Pop and Media Influences14 3. 2 Western Influences15 Chapter 4 Conclusion16 Bibliography 17 Discography/ Videography 19 Chapter 1 An Introduction to the Kompang The Malay Kompang ensemble refers to a Malay cask ensemble that ranges between cardinal performers in a small chamber or coincidence setting, to a large group of 30 gravelmers. As an instrument, the Malay Kompang is so familiar to most Singaporeans, yet it encompasses a rich history spanning much than 700 years that would astound and intrigue some(prenominal).Kompang is brinyly an oral tradition (Abdullah, 2005). Like all early(a) non-notational medicine forms, it is needs highly characterized by change, self-improvisation and yields from other grows. While Kompang melody directly is admittedly not so frequently heard nor performed as before, there have been efforts to assimilate this traditional medicinal drug genre into todays public flori goal. This paper will address the diverse cultural specifys on Malay Kompang from Arabic, Portuguese, Thai and African sources.Through the main medicineal elements of instrumentation, rhythm, form, and performance context, a comprehensive melodyal analysis of the influence of the diametric polishs on Kompang medicament will be made. This paper will also examine how elements of jumpular culture can be infused into the traditional Malay Kompang music genre, an d discuss the general developmental direction that Kompang music is taking. 1. 1 Features of the Kompang The Malay Kompang is explode of the membranoph atomic number 53 family.It is a wooden-framed, circular, one-sided go acrossheld get up with a scratch made up of animal hide and contend using the free hand (Abdullah, 2012). There argon twain main types of tones on the Kompang the lentong beat played by hitting the side of the puzzle with unkindly fingers, and the cerang played by slapping the center of the drum with the palm (Abdullah, 2012). The lentong typically produces a lower-pitched, ro chthonic sound eyepatch the cerang typically produces a higher-pitched slapping effect. One of the unique features of the Kompang is its wet and rumbling timbre due(p) to the strong effects of reverberation.Another special feature of the Kompang is its interlinking technique and the unique melodious texture heard from this effect. 1. 2 Features of Kompang Music Even though most musical theater repertoire of the Kompang is oral in nature and neither notated nor officially defined, there is undeniably a wide range of repertoire in the Kompang genre. There is purely submissive drumming as thoroughly as Kompang used to accompany vocal parts, like zikir. The variety in form the organization of musical elements in time to construct structure (Kamien, 2013) used in Kompang music is very wide.There is the use of Pukulan, which the first section is called Pukulan Mula (introduction beat), the second is called Pukulan Asas (basic beat) and the third is Pukulan Naik (ascending beat), followed by a combination of other sections including Pukulan Turun (descending beat) and Pukulan Naik. Finally the last section is identified as Pukulan Mati (ending beat). (Abdullah, 2005) There is no rule as to how many times each Pukulan has to be played the combination of Pukulan sections is determined by the length as well as the function of the entire performance.Also, the f orm of Kompang pieces is also specialised to the community that is performing the pieces. For example, the Kompang music performed by the Kompang Ezhar community in Malaysia typically begins with a call-and-response recitation of the Selawat, a reading of a holy scripture, and whence continues with the various Pukulan sections. Additionally, there are even more than types of Pukulan free-base in various forms of dance music (Abdullah, 2005). A summary of the distinguishable Pukulan specific to the Kompang Ezhar community is shown in strain 1 below realize 1 A summary of the various types of Pukulan found in the Kompang Ezhar (Abdullah, 2005)In Kompang, rhythm is mainly characterized by the interlocking of diverse parts divided within the Kompang ensemble. Interlocking is basically done with two or more Kompangs playing simultaneously, with one part playing the Basic beat which is normally the downbeats another part playing the Rhythm beat which is usually the off beats and an additional part(s) playing the Leading beat which is usually characterized by triplets or a syncopated rhythm that creates a unique interlocking texture specific to the Malay Kompang musical genre (Hahril, 2010).In addition, instrumentation is a musical element that is relatively fixed in Kompang there is usually a group of Kompangs playing together, and occasionally, accompanying voice. 1. 3 Performance Context In the Singaporean context, the Malay Kompang is usually seen performed at weddings and celebratory ceremonies, or at traditional showcases. As the Kompang is usually performed in large, open spaces, it is important that it produces loud, penetrating and thundering sounds. Kompang performances are also popular at tender functions like cultural festivals, dinner shows and events, as well as for the royalty (Abdullah, 2005).All these factors underscore the importance and essentialness of this unique instrument in the entire Malay community. Chapter 2 Influences on the Ma lay Kompang The Malay Kompang is influenced by many cultures, especially from those cultures that introduced the musical genre into the Malay community in the early 13th century. As Malacca was ruled by diametrical cultural groups throughout its history, the performance of Malay Kompang was also inevitably influenced by these cultures that took over the land at different points in its history. 2. 1 Arabic Influences One main influence on Kompang music is the Arabic culture and its music.In this context, it is of relevance to discuss the main hand drum that is greatly symbolic of Arabic music the goblet drum, a large single-headed drum introduced in 1100 BCE (Sadie, 1980). forecast 2 African goblet drum The goblet drum is played either with the drum held under the imposters arm, or with the player sitting down and placing it sideways on his lap, or with the drum strapped around his neck. Similar to the Malay Kompang, it is played using only the hands. There are three main tones u sed. The doum (bass) tone is produced by hitting the center of the drum head with the palm.The tek (higher-pitched) is produced by hitting the edge of the drum head. The pa is a percussive effect produced by hitting the drumhead and then muting it with the palm to create a closed sound. Figure 3 Doum tone on the Arabic goblet drum Figure 4 Tek tone on the Arabic goblet drum Thus, it can be seen that the playing techniques of the Malay Kompang is somewhat derived from the playing techniques of the Arabic goblet drum such that a higher-pitched sound is heard by tapping the side of the drum and letting the sound ring, and a lower-pitched sound is produced by hitting the middle of the drum using the palm.Although the muting percussive tone is not as established in Kompang performance techniques, this is probably due to the limitations of the Kompang in that it can only be hit with one hand and held with the other, making it hard to consort a muting effect. 2. 2 Portuguese Influences P ortuguese musical elements are also evident in the music of Kompang, particularly in its repertoire. This is not unexpected, as the Portuguese took over Malacca after its successful polish up on the city in July 1511 (Leo, 2013) leading to infiltration of Portuguese elements into the Malay culture and practices then.The main hand drum in the Portuguese tradition is the tabour. It is a double-headed snare drum made of cylindrical wood, played with one hand. The skin heads are tightened with leather straps and rope tension (Harms, 1989). Figure 5 The Portuguese tabor The repertoire of the tabour is mostly military in nature and is used frequently in process band processions. Additionally, the Tabor is commonly played together with the Portuguese pipe. The player commonly plays the pipe with his left over(p) hand and hits the drum with a wooden stick in his right hand.Portuguese pipe music is syndicate in nature and the rhythms played on the Tabor are accompanimental and charact erized by dotted rhythm. As the musical repertoire of the Tabor is not extensive, there is little notation available. Hence a short system of the Tabor parts from a Portuguese Pipe and Tabor ensemble has been attempted Figure 6 Transcription of Pipe and Tabor ensemble recording As seen from Figure 6, each of the three Tabor parts plays different rhythms, but the performance culminates in an interlocking effect such that the three different parts compliment each others beats of emphasis.Hence we can derive two insights regarding the Portuguese influence on the Malay Kompang firstly, the use of the Kompang in Malay processions and weddings could be influenced by the use of the Tabor in Portuguese marching processions. Secondly, the interlocking feature in Kompang music could be taken from Portuguese Tabor ensembles and then developed to the several complex interlocking parts of today, which includes triplets and more complicated swoon parts. 2. 3 Thai Influences Yet another cultural influence on Kompang music is Thai music.The Malays and the siamese have had long, diplomatic contact for over half a decade during the Siamese empire of 1403 1909. This allowed the Malays to set to the Thai culture and music. Two Siamese musical forms that were of great influence to the Malay Kompang were the Wayang Siam and the Makyong (Abdullah, 2012). The Wayang Siam is essentially accompaniment to shadow puppet theatre. The form of Wayang Siam music is mostly free in nature and depends on the theatrics and gambol of the performance. Characters are free to move onstage in more or less than the traditional eight-bar phrases (Baier, 1995).The Makyong musical form was primarily performed by a small ensemble of instruments used to accompany theatrical acts, and include improvised monologues and dialogues (UNESCO, 2005), underscoring the flexibility of the form. Similarly, Kompang ensembles accompany dances, weddings and processions and require a certain amount of flexibility to suit the occasion. in spite of the flexibility in combination and account of repetitions of Pukulan sections played, it is not as free as the form in Wayang Siam. Nevertheless, the flexibility in form can be seen as a main influence of Wayang Siam on Kompang music. . 4 African Influences The way that the drummers in an African djembe ensemble interact musically is also of influence to the Malay Kompang. One main feature of African djembe ensemble playing is polyrhythm, in which each djembe player plays a repetitive cycle of its own accompanying rhythm which is in a different note from the other djembe players. This creates a very unique rhythmic texture as there are different downbeats heard simultaneously with the playing of two different measures. This can be seen in the example below, depiction a polyrhythmic effect Figure 7 Example of polyrhythmIn addition, there is usually also a solo, virtuosic part heard above all the different accompanying parts, which gives even more r hythmic variety to the music. The influence that this has on Kompang is clear in the different parts that are taken on by the different players in the ensemble. However, the interlocking effect in Kompang is not as complex in that it is not as texturally thick as djembe as all the ensemble players are appease playing in the alike(p) measure. Nevertheless, it still shows a very important influence that African drum music had on the Malay Kompang.In the 13th century in the Malay Archipelago, little polyrhythmic or even contrapuntal music could be found. Hence the interlocking feature of Kompang music was drawn from the polyrhythms in African djembe. Chapter 3 Future Changes in the Malay Kompang In the 21st century today when most people including those in the Southeast Asia arena are exposed to popular music due to factors like technological advances and the strong wave of fond media, there is inevitably a strong inclination towards fusing traditional music with pop elements.In ad dition, due to the change magnitude westernization of Asian cultures, many traditional musical forms are gradually evolving into a more Westernized structure. Besides this, the culture where Kompang is performed today also has an effect on how it is performed. For example, Kompang Melayu is a modern style of playing Kompang, specifically found in Singapore (Hahrill, 2010). Based on my research and analysis, there is a strong possibility of two main directions that musical developments in Malay Kompang can take the pop-infused style and the westernized style. 3. Pop and Media Influences Pop music is a main influence on Kompang music today. Since the 21st century, technology has allowed a growing number of people to be connected to the Internet. With todays wireless connectivity and infiltration of social media, the immense lot of technological information sharing inevitably causes people to be influenced by songs that are literally popular those that are accessible to the widest audience (Lamb, 2013). Elements of rock, R&B, country, disco, punk, and hip-hop have been integrated into pop music for the sometime(prenominal) few decades.The rhythmic elements in these styles have the potential to be incorporated into Kompang. In addition, the form of pop music verse and chorus could be another element that could possibly influence Kompang music in the future. 3. 2 Western Influences Due to increasing westernization of Southeast-Asian cultures today as well as the flourish in Western Music education that uses mainly western notation, Kompang music is more frequently notated these days. This is evident from the bother that cross-cultural ensembles face in rehearsing due to differences in notational practices. Ross, 2011) Western orchestras, bands and ensembles have also been introduced to the Malay culture in recent years. There could potentially be new compositions that incorporate the Kompang into the scored music. For example, percussion ensembles with Komp ang as one of the instruments, or even Kompang concertos could be written in the near future as part of efforts to vulgarise traditional instruments. Chapter 4 Conclusion In conclusion, the Malay Kompang, although a considerably specific musical genre, is still influenced by a myriad of elements from other cultures.This is especially so with globalization today, causing homogenization of culture throughout many countries. As discussed above, Kompang music was initially influenced by Arabic, Portuguese, Thai and African musical elements. In recent years, it has started to be influenced by pop and western elements, which are mostly caused by the infiltration of media and technology, and the slacken but definite westernization of Asian cultures. As such, the growth of Kompang music in ways that are characterized by todays era can be witnessed. Bibliography Abdullah, M. H. (2005).An Organological and Ethnomusicological Study of A Malay Frame Drum. Retrieved from https//theses. ncl. ac . uk/dspace/bitstream/10443/869/1/Abdullah05. pdf Abdullah, M. H. (2005). ENCHANTING THE CULTURE AN INTRODUCTION TO THE AUTHENTIC KOMPANG PLAYING. Retrieved from http//www. academia. edu/380345/ENCHANTING_THE_CULTURE_AN_INTRODUCTION_TO_THE_AUTHENTIC_KOMPANG_PLAYING Abdullah, M. H. (2012). The Role of the Kompang in Malay Society. Retrieved from http//portal. unesco. org/culture/en/files/21753/10891249663abdullah. pdf/abdullah. pdf Charry, E. (2000). A Guide to the Jembe.Retrieved from http//echarry. web. wesleyan. edu/jembearticle/article. html Djembe technique Inner Groove Percussion. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http//innergroove. wordpress. com/learn-to-drum-2/djembe-technique/ Elements of Music. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http//historyofmusic. tripod. com/id6. html Kompang SHSS O Level Music. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http//shssolevelmusic. wetpaint. com/page/Kompang Mak Yong. (n. d. ). Retrieved April 2013, from http//www. unesco. org/culture/intangible-heritage/23apa_uk. htm Matusk y, P. (1995). Malaysian Shadow Play and Music Continuity of an Oral Tradition.Retrieved from http//www. jstor. org/discover/10. 2307/1124116? uid=3738992&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21101877205913 Matusky, P. A. (2004). Music of the Percussion Ensembles. Retrieved from http//books. google. com. sg/books? id=x06nBdEkAOMC&pg=PA198&lpg=PA198&dq=kompang+music+scores&source=bl&ots=hjI8kuVMZo&sig=uGiMpUc98bGJcM3GbIV9UH0_gB0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=f_5bUanSH8yUrgeXo4CoAQ&redir_esc=yv=onepage&q=kompang%20music%20scores&f=false Musical Elements Key, Musical Texture,

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